Thomas sent a letter to his wife in 1830.1
Thomas Braidwood Wilson's sixth assignment as surgeon superintendent of a convict ship occurred in mid 1830. The ship John I (3) sailed from Spithead on 14 October 1830 and arrived in Hobart Town on 28 January 1831, taking 106 days to complete the journey. John R. Norsworthy was the master.2 Thomas' journal for the voyage reads as follows.
Placeholder. Medical and surgical journal of Her Majesty's hired transport ship John for 13 September 1830 to 30 January 1831 by T B Wilson, Surgeon, during which time the said transport was employed in the conveying 200 convicts from Portsmouth to Van Dieman's Land.
Folios 1-2: John Hilms, aged 19, convict; case number 1; disease or hurt, psora. Put on sick list, 15 October 1830. Discharged cured.
Folio 2: George Freeman, aged 28, convict; case number 2; disease or hurt, ulcus magnum. Put on sick list, 15 October 1830. Discharged 10 November 1830 cured.
Folio 3: George Davis, aged 35, convict; case number 3; disease or hurt, lues venerea. Put on sick list, 23 October 1830. Discharged 5 November 1830 cured.
Folio 4: John Smith, aged 34, convict; case number 4; disease or hurt, hamorrhois. Put on sick list, 26 October 1830 at sea. Discharged 8 November 1830 cured.
Folios 4-5: Henry Saville, aged 23, convict; case number 5; disease or hurt, catarrhus. Put on sick list, 29 October 1830 at sea. Discharged 1 November 1830 cured.
Folio 5: Thomas Wells, aged 37, convict; case number 6; disease or hurt, opthalmia membranarum. Put on sick list, 2 November 1830 at sea. Discharged 8 November 1830 cured.
Folios 6-7: George Clark, aged 26, convict; case number 7; disease or hurt, ictus solis. Put on sick list, 13 November 1830 at sea. Discharged 5 December 1830 cured.
Folios 8-9: George Cardan, aged 38, steward; case number 8; disease or hurt, vulnus capitas contusium. Put on sick list, 23 November 1830 at sea. Discharged 2 December 1830 cured.
Folio 10: Henry Woodford, aged 46, convict; case number 9; disease or hurt, febris catarrhalis. Put on sick list, 15 November 1830 at sea. Discharged 20 November 1830 cured.
Folios 11-12: Joseph Drew, aged 36, convict; case number 10; disease or hurt, pneumonia. Put on sick list, 12 December 1830 at sea. Discharged 30 January 1831 to the General Hospital at Hobart.
Folio 13: John McDonald, aged 28, convict; case number 11; disease or hurt, febris catarrhalis. Put on sick list, December 1830 at sea. Discharged 10 December 1830 cured.
Folio 14: William Clarke, aged 24, private 17th Regiment; case number 12; disease or hurt, opthalmia. Put on sick list, 18 December 1830 at sea. Discharged 24 December 1830 cured.
Folio 15: A nosological synopsis of the medical cases mentioned in the journal.
Folio 16: A list of men who have received wounds or hurts, during the period of the journal. [No names recorded].
Folios 16-18: Surgeon's general remarks. On 12 September 1830, I was appointed Surgeon and Superintendent of the transport ship John fitting out at Deptford to convey 200 convicts from the hulks at Portsmouth to Van Dieman's Land. On the 20 September a detachment of the 17th Regiment (consisting of 30; officers included) embarked to serve as a guard over the prisoners, 8 women and 9 children were attached to the party. On Saturday we sailed from Deptford and arrived at Spithead on the 1 October, early on the morning of the 5th I examined the prisoners (100 on board the York and 100 on board the Leviathan, who were under orders for transportation. On the 14th October we sailed from Spithead. Folios 18-20: An abstract of a meteorological journal kept in the convict ship during a voyage from England to Van Dieman's Land.3
The arrival of the John was noted by George T. W. B. Boyes in his diary. Boyes, as previously noted, had made the acquaintance of Thomas Wilson in 1826 when "Boyes was posted to Van Diemen's Land as its colonial auditor in October..."4 and the two men had a developing friendship. Boyes' diary reads:
Heard of the arrival of the "John" with male prisoners and the "Sovereign" with merchandise....
Dr. Wilson called in the morning upon me at the Office - He had seen Mrs. Boyes and the children.5
The week after the arrival of the John it was reported in the Hobart Town Courier:
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1831.
Arrived on Saturday the ship John, 464 tons, R. Nosworthy, Commander, from London 14th Oct. with 200 male prisoners. Passengers John Montagu, esq lady and family, Capt. Anley, lady and family, with 2 sergeants, 27 privates of the 17th regt. 7 women and 7 children. Surgeon and Superintendent Dr. Wilson, R.N. who lately left us in the Governor Ready, and made the important discoveries at King George's Sound and Swan river.6
The following day Boyes noted in his diary:
At St. David's in the Morning - called upon Wilson at Morrison's on the Newtown Road.7
The identity of "Morrison" is unknown, although there are a couple of potential matches: Alexander Morrison, watch-maker, had a cottage on the New Town road which he was advertising for let in the late 1830's,8 and Askin Morrison, the successful merchant, was also in the colony in the 1830's.9. In either case, Thomas Wilson was obviously staying with him, and potentially so was Thomas' brother George Wilson. Boyes confirms George's arrival along with his brother in a further note in his diary:
Dr. Wilson and his brother dined with me.10
In a letter to his wife Boyes expanded on his diary entries as follows:
Hobart Town - 9th February 1831
Dr. Wilson arrived here on the "John" on the evening of the 28th. Ultimo - while I was at a party at the Chief Justice's and knew nothing of the important event until the next morning - when I received your parcel and letters. Wilson could not call upon me until the 1st instant when he informed me that he had seen you for a few minutes the evening before he quitted England. We dined together on the following Thursday at Moodie's and the day before yesterday he and his brother dined with me after which the Dr. and I proceeded to Govt. House to an evening party given by Mrs. Arthur on the occasion of Captn. & Mrs. Montagu's return to this country - they came out in the "John" with Wilson.
Dr. Wilson's Brother has got his grant of land /he came out to settle/ and will be off to take possession in a few days.
Wilson is pressing me hard to return to England with him but I suspect that arrangement will be quite out of the question. He is about to proceed to Sydney for a few weeks - but still I should think two months would be the utmost extent of his sojourn in this part of the world - the Surgeon Superintendants are limited to a certain period after the expiration of which, thier allowances, which are very handsome, cease.11
Thomas Braidwood Wilson's interests extended beyond the formalities of his role as Surgeon-Superintendant. It seems on nearly every expedition he considered the needs of his friends, and the interests of the colony at large. On the "John" he had brought out a hive of bees, and in subsequent years it has been reported that these were the first bees in Australia -
But much earlier, in April 1822, The Sydney Gazette reported that hives of the honeybee had been brought from England by a Captain Wallace (Wallis). Some hives were purchased by Darcy Wentworth, who put them on his estate at Homebush. Here the bees prospered. The Gazette reported that other imports of bees had previously been made, but they had died. Nearly a year later, it reported that the prominent colonist, Thomas Icely, was successfully breeding bees from generation to generation. Perhaps these were derived from Wallace’s. There is a clue though, that even Wallace’s honeybees were not the first. In 1821, John MacArthur wrote to his brother James from London, that he understood that he had acquired English bees, and wanted to know how they were going. The MacArthurs were first in other things to do with livestock in Australia: perhaps this was another. However, it is possible that all these early bees perished with Braidwood Wilson’s being the first successful imports ten years later.12
The Hobart Town Courier reported on Dr. Wilson's bees in late February 1831:
The bees imported to the colony by Dr Wilson in the John, are now in the Government Garden, and being let loose from the wire cage that surrounded them during the voyage, roam at large among the few flowers and blossoms that still afford them food though at this late period of the season. They may be seen returning to the hive from their short excursions into the bush with their legs heavily laden with the yellow wax. Great care must he taken to protect them during the winter, especially against the incursions of insects and vermin. Even in England numerous hives are annually destroyed by mice and other enemies, and in this country the swarms of ants that abound everywhere will, unless carefully guarded against, not only rob the little animals of all their hard earned gains, but many of this species will by their nauseous smell expel them from the hive. In this case we should strongly advise that the pedestal of the hive should be set in a trough of water which should be kept fresh and frequently changed. We are so anxious to see this interesting and useful auxiliary to man thrive and increase in the colony, that we trust these observations will not appear either trifling or entirely unimportant.13
Boyes' letter of early February also contained some insight into the political machinations of the colony, some of which appeared to involve his friend Dr. Wilson:
It seems ... by some whisperings that have reached me that the Secretary of State has authorized two hundred a year for the Secretary to the Schools. Captain Montagu, who with his wife was in England to dispose of his Commission and to get confirmed as Clerk for the Councils - heard of the proposed salary and offered himself to the Secretary of State...
On his arriving in the same ship as Wilson he mentioned the business of the Secretaryship to the Lt. Governor - who of course could not fail of acquainting Montagu with the promise he had made to me. Montagu ... immediately begain scheming to get out of the difficulty and secure the two hundred a year for himself. This could only be done by getting me out of the country...
Montagu has been already sounding Dr. Wilson - by asking if you were coming out and on being told you were not he immediately said: 'then I suppose Mr. Boyes will go to England.'
When this conversation occurred Wilson did not know anything of my views or intentions - but Montagu took an early occasions of resuming the subject - at which time I had tutored the Dr. as to what he should say:
"Yes, Boyes is desirous of going to England but he goes not chuse (sic) to relinquish the Auditorship - and having some fears that the Lt. Governor would not give him permission to go home and retain half his salary - I believe he has some idea of giving up all thought of England for the present."14
Without an intimate knowledge of Boyes' life or letters it would presumptuous to comment on this exchange, apart from remarking that Boyes obviously had some confidence in the friendship of Thomas Wilson. As noted earlier in Boyes' letter, Thomas Wilson proceeded to Sydney, and returned to Van Diemen's land by way of Launceston in early April as reported in the Hobart Town Courier:
The ship Mary, Capt. Beachcroft, arrived at Launceston, on the 21st. of March, from Sydney, with various goods and 32 horses. Passengers, Dr. Wilson, Mr. Murdoch, Mr. Flaherty, Mr. Gore, Captain Smith, Mis. Dodery and child, Messrs. Gilham, Nichols, Hinds, and Carpenter.15
Thomas made his way from Launceston to Hobart at some point such that by early June Boyes notes in his diary that he had arrived at his residence to stay for a few weeks:
...Walked up to Moore's new house and saw Wilson who was just despatching his brother for the Interior.
In the evening Wilson came to pass a few weeks with me. Made him a bed on the sofa. Oysters were intended for supper - but they had all expired...
At the kirk with Wilson in the morning. At home all the est of the day. Read a sermon of Atterbury's upon religious sincerity. W. dined with me.
Paid labourer's upon the allotment £3. Paid in subscription and other expences at the club £7. Wilson dined with me....
Dined with Moodie. Dr Wilson, Lt. Lane, a Skipper named Waddell....
After Office walked out toward Newtown. Dined alone. Wilson on board the "Eliza". Lent him ten sovereigns - of which he gave me in part payment £22.214.171.124
The Eliza -
...sailed from Portsmouth on 6th February 1831. On board were 224 male convicts, all of them had been convicted of machine breaking, or associated crimes. The Eliza arrived at Hobart Town on 29th May 1831, after a voyage lasting 112 days. All the men survived the voyage, although two young man died of consumption shortly after their arrival in Tasmania. The Master of the Eliza was John S Groves and the Surgeon Superintendent was William Anderson. Unfortunately the Surgeon's Journal for this voyage does not appear to have survived.17
Boyes diary entries for the next few weeks provide an intimate portrait of how Thomas Wilson spent his time while in the colony:
Wilson explained to me the use of the Surveying Compass and gave me a lesson upon the use of the artificial horizon, drew for an hour and then rode out to the 7th mile stone. Wilson and Mr. J. Boyes dined with me.
...Wilson came home at 4 A.M....
...W. did not return till 2 1/4 A.M....
Lent Wilson my horse to accompany Russell to Gibson's at the Black Snake...
Early in the forenoon a Mr. Kinchela, the new Attorny-General for New South Wales called - to see Wilson....18
According to the Australian Dictionary of Biography, John Kinchela:
...arrived at Sydney June 1831 in the Renown and his wife and three children followed in the Curler in August...
As attorney-general Kinchela found his office in great disorder. He applied successfully for a clerk to sort and file its records and soon gave evidence of 'his great anxiety to discharge his duty to the satisfaction of the Government'. He discovered arrears of unsettled actions accumulated over ten years, chiefly in unpaid debts for the purchase of government cattle and sheep. His activity resulted in large sums being paid into the Treasury, and proved more effective than his work on the commission of inquiry, ordered by the Colonial Office, into means of reducing the legal business of the government. In September 1832 Governor (Sir) Richard Bourke praised Kinchela's high principles, legal knowledge and great anxiety to give satisfaction, but complained that his extreme deafness hindered his work and rendered him inefficient as a member of the Legislative Council.19
Boyes diary continues with various mentions of Thomas Braidwood Wilson:
...Wilson dined with me.
...Wilson dined with me.
...Called with Wilson at Frankland's, Stephen's, and upon Mr. Kinchela at the Macquarie...
...Wilson dined with me.
Mr. John Boyes and Fletcher joined Wilson and me at dinner...
Hailing and rainy, squally. Nevertheless walked up to Glover's the artist with Hill to see a picture that he was at work upon of Mount Wellington at sunrise. I was to have dined at Hill's but the weather was so bad that all his party sent excuses and so I got off. I was invited to Stephen's but had accepted Hill's offer just before. Wilson at the former place....
...Wilson at Dr. Ross's.20
Dr. Ross was no doubt James Ross who -
in May 1825 was appointed jointly with George Howe government printer and editor of the Hobart Town Gazette at a salary of £300. They published the first issue of the Gazette on 25 June. In January 1827 the partnership of Howe & Ross was dissolved; Ross was appointed to sole charge of the government printing office in February and in March Howe began publishing the Tasmanian in Hobart. Under the new arrangement the Hobart Town Gazette was an official weekly paper containing government announcements but no comment or discussion. In October Ross began to publish weekly also the Hobart Town Courier, an independent newspaper, but one which consistently supported the government. In 1828, instead of his salary, Ross was given a contract to print the Gazette for £5 a week with a monopoly of government printing. In 1829 he began producing the annual Hobart Town Almanack, and in February 1833 the short-lived Hobart Town Chronicle. In 1835 he edited and published four issues of the Van Diemen's Land Monthly Magazine, in which appeared verse, literary articles, and articles on natural history. In 1832 he was granted 312 acres (126 ha), Paraclete, on Knocklofty.21
Boyes diary makes further mention of Dr. Ross in the early July entries:
...Wilson dined with me....
Wilson and I dined with Stephen. Before dinner rode around Newtown. Party at S's...
Evening additions to the partner at dinner...Dr. and Mrs. Ross. The invisible Editor of the Courier, as he calls himself, looked as fat and foolish as a pig...
Croly, Pole, Moodie & Wilson dined with me...
...I paid Wilson on balance of our account 3/....
July 10th. Sunday
...Dined tete a tete with Wilson...22
Boyes then expanded on his diary entries in a letter to his wife composed between 16 June and 10 July 1831:
My dear Mary,
While I was dressing this morning I received an elderly man trying the Front gate which being secured by a staple and lock, of course resisted his efforts. I called to Wilson who has been living with me since the 4th instant, and told him that an ancient friend of his was trying to make his way into the house. W. raised the blind and immediately threw it down - in the conviction that respectable looking piece of antiquity was a stranger. The servant however was sent round to escort the gentleman past my formidable canine friend, "Fangs" who absolutely looks intimidation to every intruder.
It appeared that notwithstanding Wilson felt some difficulty in recongnizing his acquaintance - he had in reality met him several times in London - and he had now to know him as Attorney-General of New South Wales, on his way to Sydney to commence the arduous and, generally speaking, unpopular duties of such an appointment...
Just as I was about to begin the agreeable with the stupid old man, as I take the lawyer to be - a packet was placed before me which put the elder quite out of my head. I was soon in the thick of your letter of the 9th November last - and while I was perusing it I suspect Wilson and his friend walked off, as on finishing my agreeable task there was nobody in the room but myself...
Wilson dines out almost every day - which gives me the opportunity of this extracting from my Diary, or rather enlarging upon it. It is now 12 midnight and I therefore write no more.
3d. July. Wilson is still here and at this moment sleeping /though not silent/ in the next room. The Sunday is almost the only day he gives me and considering my engagements throughout the week I have little time to devote to him. I have never seen so much of him before and I assure you he improves prodigiously upon acquaintance. He is a kind hearted and an honourable man, and one whose friendship is well worth cultivating. His life has been almost a Romance of unfortunate events, and the heroism with which he has borne them makes him as no every day person. I am sure it will be a pleasure to you to see one who will have so recently passed his time under my roof, and therefore indulge yourself to the full in the satisfaction to be derived from conversing with him. He knows everything that relates to my situation with the Government, and the people, and though he may probably upon some points dilate in rather too glowing characters yet his tale, I doubt not, will be substantially correct. He tells me that he is quite sure of landing at Portsmouth and will see you without loss of time...
Wilson described you, for I have pressed him hard upon the subject, although indirectly, as a handsome woman of six and twenty - and won't allow you to be a year older - and, as he cannot believe me to be forty, Ay there's the rub, I have not undeceived him in either case...
I have been drawing all the morning for Wilson - he sat at home reading. At four I mounted my horse for a ten mile ride and half past five returned to partake with him of a boiled chicken and piece of roast beef. We have sat gossiping till eleven and since he retired I have written these lines which bear this date.
...to returnt to your letter - you say you shall expect to see a little alteration in me - your expectations will not be disappointed although Wilson may tell you a somewhat differant story - but I have already cautioned you against his descriptive style...
Your enquiries or apprehensions rather, about my health I can now answer in the most satisfactory way. Ask Wilson how far I suffer by ill health, abstinence and loss of appetite...
Talking about my Orphan Children you must know that of males and females I have now about 180 to look after. What I should do if I has so many widows to superintend I know not. Wilson took home two or three at differant times - who had been placed by their friends under his care, and commended to his kind attentions and he says that he had more troubles with them than he ever had with a ship load of prisoners....
Sunday 10. July.
...When you bid me take care of myself I should you to have seen me comfortably seated and opening oysters by the fire. Wilson is now writing to his brother in the next room. The ship sails tomorrow morning and everything must be ready this evening - and it is now eleven o'clock...23
Boyes' notes about Thomas Wilson then continued in his diary:
After breakfast finished the two drawings for Wilson. At the Office till 4. Wilson sat an hour with me in the evening. He then bade me adieu and took the drawings under his arm....
Raining - therefore could not see Wilson off as I intended. The vessel* was beating down the harbour all the morning. *the John sailed...24
The sailing was reported in the Colonial Times.
July 12,-Sailed the ship John, R. B. Norsworlhy, Commander, with a full cargo of Colonial produce for London, viz:-1200 bales of wool, 24 tons of bark, 20 casks do., 7 blindies of whalebone, 51 bags and 24 casks of wheat, 1 cask seal skins, 3 do. kangaroo do., 250 boxes sugar, 90 do, nankeens, 5 do. silks and crapes, 1 do. rhubarb, 4 cases
seeds and curiosities. Passengers-Dr, Wilson, R.N., Capt. Parkins, and Capt. Muddle.25
So Thomas was once again in England, planning for his next journey no doubt. In the interim, the success of the bee hives he had brought out was reported in the Hobart Town Courier in October 1831.
The bees in the Government garden, brought out last year (sic) in the John by Dr. Wilson, and to which Mr. Davidson has been so particularly attentive during the whole of the winter, produced a fine swarm on Tuesday last, which were successfully hived and immediately commenced working.26
And again in November 1831.
We last week had the pleasure to mention that the hive of bees lately brought out by Dr. Wilson, in the John, which had been placed under Mr. Davidson's care in Government garden, had produced a maiden swarm, which was doing well. On Saturday last a second swarm came forth, which was also immediately hived and commenced working, and on Tuesday a third swarm was produced, being no less than 3 swarms from one hive, and the first in the colony, in the course of a fortnight!!! an instance of fecundity unprecedented, as far as our knowledge goes, in the annals of bees. Being so early in the season, and with so long a summer, before us, (for June analogous to our December is generally the earliest month in which bees' swarm in England,) we have every hope that all these three hives will do well. It is advisable, however, in these second and third swarms to hive them in smaller sized hives, at the largest not above 2 pecks, for as the bees from instinct always endeavour to fill with combs whatever hive they are put into, however large, before they begin to gather honey; if the hive be large, a weak swarm would be apt to spend too much time on this labour, and so lose the opportunity of taking in a sufficient store of honey for winter food, and starvation of course would be the consequence. Much credit is due to Mr. Davidson for the care he has taken with this valuable insect, and the success he has already had with it proves how well it is suited to the colony.27
- 1. Patricia Clarke: A Colonial Woman : the Life and Times of Mary Braidwood Mowle, 1827-1857; Allen & Unwin, Sydney, Boston, 1986; p. 23
- 2. Bateson, Charles: The Convict Ships; Brown, Son & Ferguson Ltd, Glasgow.
- 3. The National Archives: Medical and surgical journal of Her Majesty's hired transport ship John for 13 September 1830 to 30 January 1831 by T B Wilson; http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/SearchUI/Details?uri=C11509386 ADM 101/37/6A
- 4. Chapman, Peter: George Thomas William Blamey Boyes in the Dictionary of Australian Artists Online; http://www.daao.org.au/main/read/994
- 5. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. pp. 398-399
- 6. The Hobart Town Courier Saturday 5 February 1831
- 7. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. p. 399
- 8. Colonial Times Tuesday 1 December 1835
- 9. Peter Bolger, 'Morrison, Askin (1800 - 1876)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 5, Melbourne University Press, 1974, pp 297-298; http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A050342b.htm
- 10. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. p. 399
- 11. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. pp. 400-402
- 12. Campbell, Keith: Bees; Ockham's Razor; ABC Radio National; Broadcast Sunday 29 December 2002 with Robyn Williams; http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/stories/s750777.htm
- 13. The Hobart Town Courier Saturday 26 February 1831
- 14. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. pp. 403-404
- 15. The Hobart Town Courier Saturday 2 April 1831
- 16. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. pp. 443-444
- 17. Chambers, Jill: Swing Riots & Rioters.com; http://www.swingriotsriotersblacksheepsearch.com/index.php?p=1_7_Eliza
- 18. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. p. 444
- 19. 'Kinchela, John (1774? - 1845)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2, Melbourne University Press, 1967, pp 51-52.; http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020048b.htm
- 20. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. pp. 445-447
- 21. Ross, James (1786 - 1838)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2, Melbourne University Press, 1967, pp 396-397; http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020351b.htm
- 22. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. pp. 447-449
- 23. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. pp. 449-456
- 24. Chapman, Peter (Ed.): The diaries and letters of G. T. W. B. Boyes. Volume 1. 1820-1832; Oxford University Press; Melbourne, 1985. p. 46?
- 25. "SHIP NEWS." Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857) 13 Jul 1831: 2. Web. 2 Mar 2014; http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8645967.
- 26. The Hobart Town Courier Saturday 22 October 1831
- 27. The Hobart Town Courier Saturday 5 November 1831