Christiana's Life after Thomas Arnott

After Thomas' 1847 death 1 at Rokeby and burial in St Matthew's Cemetery, Christiana made her way back to Sydney, and in 1848, married a William Rodgers at St James Church. 2 Who William Rodgers is, or as to his origins, still remain a mystery to be solved. It would be 7 years of (possibly) bliss-full marriage, before the happy couple would come under the gaze of the authorities and find their way into the tabloid newspapers and shed some light on, until now, the mysterious Christiana ....

William and Christiana were possibly living at No 995a Sussex street in the ward of Brisbane, in a house owned by Rosetta Terry with a gross annual value of only £9. 3

Some years would pass before William and Christiana would appear in the news, when Christiana reports a crime to the police -

Christiana Rogers residing in Clarence-street reports, that on the night of 20 instant her residence was robbed of a Gold Geneva Watch, No. 85451, and a work box valued at ₤10. A woman named Mary Earley, dark complexion, dark hair, broken nose, scar on forehead, and a very tall stature, is suspected as the thief. 4

It would seem that the police arrested another “Mary” for the crime -

Central Police Court Saturday – Before Mr Dowling.
Mary Ann Dwyer was charged with stealing in a dwelling. William Rogers, of Sussex-street deposed that three or four weeks since, the prisoner came to his house for lodging, and agreed to pay 8s. a week ; that a few days afterward, he went home to dinner, and found his wife asleep, when prisoner prepared his dinner for him ; about four in the afternoon, he returned home, and found his wife still asleep, but the prisoner gone ; he awoke his wife, who missed from her side a gold watch worth about £10 ; no other person had been seen about the premises. Committed for trial. 5

It is confirmed that it is Christiana's husband, William Rogers, with a similar report in the newspaper the next day -

Central Police Court Saturday – Before the Police Magistrate.
Mary Anne Dwyer was charged with stealing a gold Geneva Watch, value £10. the property of Christiana Rogers, of Sussex-street. It appeared from the evidence for the prosecution that the prisoner took a lodging at the house of Mrs. Rogers, about a month ago. A few days afterwards the prosecutrix wene [sic] to sleep in her bedroom, the prisoner promising to awake her at four o'clock in the afternoon, before her husband came home. She failed to keep her promise, and Mrs. Rogers on awaking found that her watch was gone, the string by which it was attached round her neck having been cut, and that the prisoner had left the house ; prosecutrix had given fifty dollars for the watch in California ; a white crape [sic] shawl, a work-box, and other articles were missed from the house at the same time. The prisoner was not seen again until Thursday last, when she was apprehended in George-street by Serjeant Robinson of the Sydney Police Force ; none of the missing property has been traced, The prisoner was committed to take her trial at the next Court of Quarter Sessions. 6

The trial occurred on Friday 15th June 1855 and the trial result reported -

[The following should have appeared In Saturday's issue, but was mislaid, and thus escaped attention]
FRIDAY, JUNE 15, 1855. (Before the Chairman.)
The Crown Prosecutor conducted the following cases :-
Mary Ann Dwyer was indicted for stealing a watch and shawl, the property of William Rogers. Acquitted. 7

Shortly after this episode, William and Christina are in the news again -

CENTRAL POLICE COURT TUESDAY. (Before the Police Magistrate and Mr. Egan.)
William Rogers was charged with assaulting his wife Christina Rogers. The complainant, a native of Germany, said that the defendant who used to be everything that was good to her, had latterly ill-treated her, and on the 23rd instant struck her in the face, and threw a stone at her ; the defendant retorted by charging his wife with being constantly drunk. As the assault was trifling, he was fined 10s., which he paid at once. 8

The first recorded Lutherans arrived in Australia in the late 1830s, as immigrants from Germany. 9

The verdict and fine payment were reported in another paper -

William Rogers for an assault on Christina his wife, was sentenced to pay 10s., or to be imprisoned for twenty-four hours. 10

So, is this the origin of Christiana ????? - Germany ? – possibly via California ?. Did this assault have a detrimental effect on Christina ?; was her drinking habit a consequence of her time married to Thomas Arnott; and the cause of these subsequent affrays ?.

There are several further reports in the Sydney papers, for court appearances between July and October 1856, for the same Christina Rogers.

CENTRAL POLICE COURT TUESDAY. (Before the Police Magistrate)
Catherine Booth, for having assaulted one Christina Rogers, was fined 10s. and costs, or in default, ordered to be imprisoned for three days. 11

CENTRAL POLICE COURT FRIDAY. (Before the Police Magistrate, and Mr. D. Egan, J.P.)
Christina Rogers was found guilty of an assault, and sentenced to pay 10s. and costs, or to be imprisoned for twenty-four hours. 12

Possibly as a result of this conviction, Christina spent time in the Darlinghurst Gaol. 13

No. Name. Ship. Where Born. Religion. Trade. Age. Height. Make. Complexion. Colour of Hair. Colour of Eyes. Education. REMARKS.
1441 Christina Rogers Germany Prot. 45 5' 1" Slight fresh Bn to Gy Bl Nil

Margaret O'Brien, found guilty of assaulting by throwing a bone at one Christina Rogers, and cutting her head, was sentenced to pay a penalty of 40s., or to be imprisoned for seven days, and to give sureties to keep the peace for one month or to be imprisoned for one month. 14

An extended similar report appeared in the The Empire Newspaper on the same day -

CENTRAL POLICE COURT - SATURDAY. (Before the Police Magistrate.)
Margaret O'Brien was charged with having violently assaulted and wounded one Christina Rogers, by striking her on the head with a bone, The complainant, said she gave no provocation for the assault. Ann O'Brien, defendant's daughter stated that her mother had put some clothes out to dry, and that the complainant's husband threw them down, and called her mother bad names. Eleanor Ditcher deposed that she saw the defendant making a blow with a prop-stick at the complainant's husband, who took the prop away and went with his wife into his house and shut the door ; defendant sent some one for the clothes prop ; but Mrs. Rogers ordered the person away ; defendant then went herself, and struck Mrs. Rogers on the head with a bone. The Bench found her guilty of an assault, and sentenced her to pay 40s., or to be imprisoned for seven days ; then, to be bound over herself in £20, and one surety of £10, to keep the peace for one month, or in default to be imprisoned for a month. 15

There is a Margaret O'Brien living 2 off Sussex street, between numbers 179 and 181, in the ward of Brisbane, in a stone dwelling with a shingle roof owned by Thomas Street with a gross annual value of £26. 16

Christina then next appears in the news, as a witness in a rather gruesome murder trial at Bathurst Circuit Court. The Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal has the first part of the report on the murder trial on the Wednesday; and the report is continued on the following Saturday. The first reported details of her testimony were -

The learned Counsel called Christianna Rogers, who deposed : I am a German woman, I reside with my husband at the Canobalas ; I remember going on a Tuesday to Neill's to get his eldest son to draw some logs for me ; I am a sawyer and work in the pit with my husband ; it was about 5 o'clock on the Tuesday morning that I left home to go to Neill's ; I arrived there in a very short time and the door was closed ; when the door was opened I saw Mr. Neill dressing, and I walked outside until he had finished dressing, I stayed there until 1 o'clock in the afternoon, I took breakfast there with Neill's wife and family ; he never went away until nine o'clock ; when he went to look at the stock, he then assisted Mrs. Neill to cut up some beef ; he could not have been away half an hour without my knowing, it.
By the Attorney General : I get my beef from Orange ; I never got any beef from the prisoner ; I never said anything to a boy called Johnson,about Neill being innocent of the murder, that the bullocks got out of the yard on the Tuesday morning, and that Neill had gone out on horse back after them ; I saw a stranger at Neill's on that morning ; I don't know who or what he was ; he stopped there two or three hours ; I don't know what he was doing all that time, it was none of my business ; Neill was putting a fence up ; I got meat and tea for breakfast it was corned meat ; when Neill went out before breakfast, I went with him ; I saw him regularly all the while I was there ; when Neill went out side he was doing nothing ; he wasn't out for more than two minutes.
Alexander Brown deposed : I am a plough man and live at Orange ; I know the prisoner; I do not know Mr. Moore; I heard of the murder of Mrs. Moore ; I was over to Neill's to get some logs for the pit on Tuesday the day the murder was committed ; it was after I went home that I heard the murder was committed ; the day after I got to Neill's about 6 o'clock, I saw Neill, his wife, and children at home ; Mrs. Rogers came there while I was there, I stopped until half-past nine o'clock ; Neill never went outside while I was there ; Mrs. Rogers came there about an hour after I got there ; when I got there, there were plates and cups and saucers on the table ; they did not get breakfast while I was there ; everybody was up when I got to Neill's ; I was with my brother for a few days previous to the murder ; I had known Mrs. Rogers for about a month, the first time Mrs. Rogers was at my brother's house was about a fortnight before the murder ; I did not know her before this time.
Sir W. Manning called the following witness to contradict the evidence for the defence ; and he was questioned as to his ideas of the nature of an oath. His answers were satisfactory. William Johnson being; sworn, deposed : I know Mrs. Rogers when she stated on the Friday, that Will was innocent and that he was out on the Tuesday morning looking for bullocks ; she did not say it in exactly the same words as are now mentioned. 17 & 18

A much fuller and more detailed report appeared on the following Saturday -

THE following report of the trial of this remarkable and horrible case, at the Bathurst Circuit Court, is from the Bathurst Times of Wednesday last. The trial took place on the 31st instant, before his Honor, Mr. Justice Milford. James Neill was charged with having on the 21st of February, 1860, at Canoblas, feloniously, wilfully, and of his malice aforethought, killed and murdered one Mary Moore. Plea - Not Guilty.
His Honor assigned Mr. Stephen, barrister, with Mr. G. Colquhoun, solicitor, to defend the prisoner.
Sir William Manning opened the case by reciting the principal incidents, and shewing how they pointed to the prisoner as the perpetrator of the crime. The first witness called was -
Phillip Moore, who deposed as follows : I reside at the Canoblas, near Orange; my nearest neighbour is a person named Gough. [The witness was here requested to leave the box for a few moments while Mr. Finnerty, chief-constable of Orange, occupied it.]
Thomas Finnerty, chief constable of Orange, sworn, certified to the correctness of a plan of the locality in which the murder was committed ; he stepped the distance from the place where Moore had seen the prisoner on horse, back to the spot where the remains of the body were afterwards found ; and also that from the spot on which Bosen stood when he saw a man on horseback the evening before the discovery of the body ; the body was found in a gully near the ridge, described in the plan ; he saw also some pools of blood, on the ridge ; the body had evidently been dragged from the ridge to the gully.
By Mr. Stephen : The distance from the body to prisoner's house is about a mile and a half.
Phillip Moore, re-called : My house is about a quarter, of a mile from prisoner's ; Neill's house is about three-quarters of mile from the place where the body was found ; Neill was on bad terms with me and my wife ; he had threatened me and my wife, Mr. Keenan, and Jemmy, the tinker ; on a certain occasion he said that we all wanted shooting, for we were a dirty mob, and the first chance he could get at my wife and me he would shoot us; this was betwixt Neill's house and mine ; my wife was at home ; I offered to give him satisfaction if be would go over to Mr Keenan's that I had not been talking about how he was carrying on ; he then began accusing me and my wife of being informers, and keeping Keenan and constables at my house to watch him ; a bullock of Keenan's had been found in his yard ; nothing more, passed at that time ; I went to a magistrate, but did not take any proceedings against the prisoner then ; on a Tuesday morning in February my wife came into the bedroom, put on her hood; and asked me if I was not going to get up; I replied yes, and heard the door shut ; this was before breakfast ; she had set, the breakfast things ; I got up and opened the door two or three minutes after, and asked her if she wouldn't take breakfast before she went after the bullocks ; she held up her hand, and said she would only go and turn the bullocks ; she then went past Mr. Gough's paddock, and out of sight ; I heard the bullock bells ; I went down the paddock a few minutes after, the same way my wife went, and heard the bells of the bullocks, and thought they were coming towards me ; I saw Mrs. Gough going towards her own house ; the bullocks were coming along as if being driven ; I. thought at the time that Mrs. Gough was my wife ; I drove the bullocks into my paddock, and expected to have found my wife at home, but she was not ; I went out again in the same direction as before; I went much farther than where the bullocks were, cooeying, but to no effect ; I went round the neighbourhood, about two miles, and made inquiries, but could not gain any intelligence of her, and then went home ; and after taking some refreshment, went out with a man (Bosen) and searched till evening ; I thought I would then go to Mr.. Burke's, where I heard my wife say she would call for something ; on my way, I saw the prisoner coming in the direction from where the body was found next morning ; I turned round to make sure who it was ; it was James Neill, and he was riding a poor big bay horse ; I pointed out the spot to Finnerty next day ; the prisoner was going towards his own home ; in going from the body to his own house, he would have to cross some creeks ; he was off the road, and appeared to be coming round from where the deceased lay ; it was then about sundown ; be went straight along, the horse walking ; I went on to Mr. Burke's, which was about two miles further, but obtained no intelligence of my wife ; on the next morning Bosen got up and went after the bullocks ; after he was gone some time, be came back to me; he called me towards the fence ; I went with him to the place where the body was burning ; the trunk was consumed up to. the neck ; her poor arms and head were not consumed (Witness here became much affected, and sobbed audibly). The head was scorched, and there were great cuts on it ; the hair was burned off; I could not recognise the features; the feet and legs were not burnt ; I identified the boots on the feet, having made them myself and used particular nails to prevent slipping on the ground ; my wife wore those boots the morning she went out ; I quenched the fire with two buckets of water ; there were some small sticks, and plenty of wood to have consumed the body ; but it appeared as if the fire had been purposely kept from blazing up to avoid exposure ; Bosen went for the police; Mr. Finnerty picked up, near one of the pools of blood, a comb which belonged to my wife ; it seemed as if some one had been kneeling down by the spot ; there were marks as if the body had been dragged along the ground from the place where my wife appeared to have received the first blow ; I dare say I had been within 200 yards of the body on the day before, when looking for my wife ; there were some heavy bludgeon-like slicks near, with hair and marks of blood upon them ; it was a very secluded place; I have never seen my wife since; my wife was a big strong woman ; the remains were those of such a person; I have since seen the horse Neill was riding, at the Police office, Orange.
Cross-examined : Neill's is about a quarter of a mile from my house ; there are about thirty acres of bush ground between ; the prisoner has been living there for some time ; I have had no quarrel with the prisoner since my complaint was made to Mr. Lane, the magistrate ; it was between 6 and 7-o'clock my wife went out on the morning she was missed ; the reason she went out was because she was afraid if I went and Neill met me he might murder me ; I was in the habit of going about the neighbour-hood, here, there, and everywhere; I heard the tinkling of the bullock-bells as I was going along my own paddock ; the sounds proceeded from the direction of Mr. Gough's, whither I went ; I saw the bullocks coming along the ride ; I was then about a quarter of a mile from the spot where the body was found ; when I saw Mrs Gough she appeared to be going, towards her own house, which is about a quarter of a mile from, the place where the body was ; there is a creek between Gough's house and his paddock ; I was on the ridge side of the creek ; I went home past Gough's house ; the land between Gough's house and mine is scrubby ; I took the bullocks to the corner of my paddock.
The learned counsel here experienced some difficulty in making the witness fix the time when he inquired about the deceased at Gough's house. He was questioning him very closely, when the witness turned round and hurriedly left the Court followed by the chief constable and others. Word was directly after brought, in that the witness was in a fit. Dr, Warren, who was present in Court, went to his assistance.
Another witness was called, and the case proceeded with -
William Bosen sworn : I lived with Philip Moore and his wife ; I never heard her Christian name; I bad been living there three weeks at the time of the murder ; on that morning, while I was out, I met her, and she asked me if I had seen the bullocks ; she went in the direction of Gough's ; I saw no more of her ; I then went into the house, when Moore jumped out of bed and called to his wife to come back ; she went on ; Moore, as soon as he had put his clothes on, went out after her ; in twenty minutes or half-an-hour afterwards, he came back with the bullocks ; he came to the cottage and asked if I had seen his wife ; he said she might have missed the bullocks ; I replied, I did not see how she could have missed them ; he then went out again for about half-an-hour ; he then had breakfast, after which we both went in search of Mrs. Moore, in different directions ; we were out the whole day, but could not find her ; I saw two men in the bush, fencing, and inquired of other persons at their houses ; as I was coming home in the evening I saw a man on a poor bay horse ; he was dressed in a blue shirt, moleskin trouser, and cabbage-tree hat ; that was about 200 yards from where I found the body the next morning ; he was coming towards me, straight for the spot where the body lay; I could not recognise his features; it was about sundown ; he came within twenty or thirty yards of me, and slewed off his horse as hard as be could gallop when he saw me ; I have seen the horse since at the court-house, at Orange ; the prisoner was similarly dressed when I saw him in the court-house, at Orange ; it appeared to me that the man pulled the horse sharp up when he rode away from me ; I went home ; Mr. Moore was there, and he went out again before I reached the door; the man I saw on horseback rode off in the direction of Molong ; be appeared to me to be about the same size as the prisoner ; the next morning, I went out in the same direction as I had done the evening before; I found the bullocks, and saw some smoke ; I went up to the spot it was rising from and discovered the remains of Mrs. Moore which I identified by the boots ; I went immediately to Gough's house, and reported what I had seen ; when Mr. Finnerty came, the ground was closely examined ; I saw a back-comb which Mr. Finnerty picked up, and tracks on the ground as if the body bad been dragged along about twenty or thirty yards ; there was no wood burning, only the body ; Mrs. Moore was a fat person; there were only two little sticks by the fire : the body was nearly consumed ; the back bone was not burnt through; the head, legs, and arms, were unburnt ; Mr. Moore is subject to fits ; has been in fits two-hours at a time ; on the day of the funeral he had fits, lasting nearly all night.
Cross examined : I never knew, the bullocks ran in the same direction they were in on the morning of the murder ; Mrs. Moore was usually absent about half an hour when she went for the bullocks ; when I came home in the evening I found Mr. Moore waiting for me, to know whether I had heard of his wife ; I told him I had seen nothing of her ; he then went out again in search of her ; when I went out after breakfast I cooeyed about ; I passed about thirty yards from the spot where the body was burnt, the evening previous to finding it ; there was no smoke there then, or I must have seen it ; on the Wednesday morning, I went out for the bullocks and found one of them close to the body ; I never knew the bullocks to be in that direction before ; the man I saw on horseback had no coat on.
Henry Warren, surgeon, practising at Orange : On Wednesday, 22nd February, I went to Canoblas to examine the remains of a body which was lying on the ground, a great portion of it was burnt ; part of the upper portion of the legs wore burnt ; the clothes wore consumed ; the upper part of the body was entirely consumed ; the clothes had apparently been dragged up over the remains of the body ; there were marks of violence – wounds over the head ; the bones of the nose were smashed in ; there was a lacerated wound on the right side of the face, from the eye to the upper lip, and a tooth out corresponding with the wound ; I examined the head, and found one extensive fracture of the skull ; the wounds were quite sufficient to have caused death ; the congestion of the brain was a sufficient indication that the wounds were inflicted before death, and must have caused death ; about twenty yards from the body, there wore pools of blood, and marks as if the body had been dragged along ; I saw also several pieces of wood near the body marked with blood, one of them bad human hair upon it - long, like a woman's hair ; Isaw the prisoner's clothes on the following day; there were small spots of blood on the shirt and trousers ; there is a difference in the size and form of a globule of human blood, and that of a bullock ; I am aware that there is a difference in the size of globules of blood of different animals.
Thomas Finnerty, C. C., of Orange : When I went to the Canoblas, I saw the remains of the body, which I believe to be that of Mrs. Moore; before I got to the place, where the body was found, I discovered some blood, which I tracked for twenty-seven yards ; there was every appearance of a great scuffle and of a body having been dragged ; I also found a small stick, of which the root had apparently been pared off with a knife, leaving a small knob at the end ; I produce the stick which had blood upon it, and hair attached to the knob ; I found it within twelve yards of the body ; the blood and tracks appeared to be quite fresh ; this hair was upon the stick ; at the end of the twenty-seven yards the body appeared to have been dragged in a different fashion ; I also found a broken stick, which I roduce, apparently stained with blood, about six yards from the body ; I also picked up, in the same neighbourhood, the back-comb produced ; when I found the body, it was all consumed except a portion of the skull, the arms, and the legs ; there were but a very few ashes ; Moore and Bosen told me they bad seen a man on the evening before, and Moore pointed out the spot ; I stepped it, and found it was 320 yards from the body ; and from the body to the spot where Moore, saw him, it was 200 yard s ; I followed the tracks of a horse from the road to within ten yards of the first pool of blood I saw ; the tracks were from the direction of the body to the road ; I followed the track upon the road towards Neill's house ; where I first saw the horse tracks, it was about 100 yards from the spot where Moore first saw the man on horseback ; I went with Mears to Neill's house ; Neill was at home, and I told him I arrested him on a charge of murdering Mary Moore ; Angus and Murray and other witnesses saw the horse ; I did not compare the horse's hoofs with the tracks I saw ; Dr. Warren saw the shirt and trousers ; I caused part of the shirt and trousers to be sealed up in a bottle and given to one of the Gold Guard to take to the Inspector General of Police to be analysed.
Cross-examined : I did not cut out the only parts that were stained with blood ; there were other parts stained ; the bay horse was sixteen bands high quite ; I don't know how long the prisoner was in the neighbourhood ; I believe he has cattle and horses ; Burkes's place is at the Heifer Station Creek ; the distance of Murray's to Neill's is about three miles ; from Neill's to Burkes's would be about a mile further ; I arrested prisoner at his own house ; there was meat in a cask there recently killed ; prisoner said he bad killed it five or six days : it appeared to me to have been killed two days ; the prisoner was taken to the spot where the body was found and made to sit down, by the order of Mr. Templar.
John Mears, a constable, deposed : I went to apprehend the prisoner at his own place ; I saw prisoner engaged with his son, putting up a fence ; he asked if I had any good news for him ; I said no ; he repeated the question several times ; I did not tell him what I came for ; there was a horse in the stack-yard, he drove the horse away into the bush, the horse answered the description of one I bad received ; I asked prisoner if it was his, and he said yes ; I asked if he had plenty to do at home now without gallanting about in the bush, he said yes, he had not been out since Sunday, Mr. Finnerty came up shortly after, and ordered him to take off his shirt and trousers ; prisoner asked if it was on account of the blood on them ; prisoner went out into the kitchen after taking off his shirt ; I followed him and heard him say to his wife, "Well, never mind, perhaps it's a good job I'm taken, and it may be a good job for mother Moore that she is murdered" ; the horse was then brought back by Mr. Finnerty's order ; prisoner said be had not ridden the horse since the Sunday before ; prisoner was put on his own horse, and while going into Orange, asked what direction in the bush the body was; I said somewhere about ; I watched prisoner closely when passing : near the body ; the prisoner fixed his eye on the spot where the body lay, whilst passing for nearly half a-mile in view of it ; he seemed much altered in appearance; the blood on the prisoner's clothes appeared not to be very old.
Henry Snow : I am in the Gold Escort ; I received a parcel from Mr. Finnerty on the 28th February ; I delivered it at the Inspector-General's office ; it was returned to me two minutes after, and I took it to Mr. Watt, the chemist.
Charles Watt : The parcel was addressed to Messrs. Norrie and Watt ; it was given into my hands by Mr. Norrie ; it was brought with a letter from the Inspector General ; I opened it ; I am an analytical and microscopical, chemist ; I have proper instruments for the practice of my profession ; it is part of my profession to have a knowledge of the nature of the blood of different animals ; the blood spots were cut out from the pieces of calico produced and placed in a weak solution of glycerins in a watch-glass ; the specific gravity of the solution was made to represent the same as that of the serum of the blood ; we also prepared a solution of albumen, the white of egg, for another experiment ; the blood is divided into serum and clot, which can be separated ; the object of placing the blood spots in serum was to bring out the corpuscles to their original size ; this experiment would take about 12 hours ; I afterwards examined the calico under a microscope in order to ascertain the nature, size, and shape of the corpuscles, and to learn their relative proportions to each other ; I found that the corpuscles corresponded in size with those of the human subject, comparing them with corpuscles of my own blood, which I keep dried for such purposes ; Ialso compared them with the blood of an ox which I have had by me for some time ; the blood, that was on the rag corresponded more with my own blood than with any of the other sorts I experimented with ; the difference in size in the globules is very minute ; and it is necessary in testing to take the average measurement of the spots ; the microscope I use would shew clearly an object no larger than the 30,000th part of an inch ; there was one spot like the blood of an ox on the trousers ; a globule of fresh blood is more spherical than an old one ; I prefer the light of a lamp with the microscope to the solar rays ; the general character of the globules from the shirt was like that of human blood ; it is not unusual in this colony to find fat in the globules of human subjects ; particularly from persons diseased by drink ; I found such in the spots on the shirt ; I never found fat in the globules of the lower animals; there are two sorts of globules in human blood - white and red - the white corpuscles bore the same numerical proportion in the globules sent to me to test that they did in the case of my own blood ; Mr. Norrie prepared the albumen test, whilst I prepared the glycerine ; we examined each other's tests and found a perfect correspondence ; the result of my examination of the spots is that they are blood and in my opinion they are human blood, with the exception of one which I believe to be that of a bullock.
Cross-examined : It is decidedly much more difficult to distinguish human blood from that of animals ; the object of the glycerine, is to bring back the corpuscles to its original size and form ; I know when that is achieved by the appearance of the corpuscle, and the free and perfect manner in which it floats ; I received the objects for testing about the beginning of March. (Mr. Stephen here questioned the witness upon the authority of Dr. Taylor on tests for the discovery of human blood, and read a passage from Taylor's Medical Jurisprudence, wherein Dr. Taylor is represented to have stated in evidence, in a case of murder, that he believed it to be impossible, to distinguish between human blood and that of domestic poultry when dried on clothing).
Donald Murray : I live near the Canoblas, about 1 ½ miles from Mr. Moore's house ; I heard of the murder on the 21st, and on the Wednesday morning (22nd), the remains were found ; on that day, the prisoner rode by my house on a small bay horse, which was not in very great condition ; I saw the prisoner afterwards at Orange ; he was then dressed as he is now ; it was the day Mrs. Moore was missed that I saw the prisoner at my house ; he was in the habit of coming to my house.
Cross-examined : I did not observe any blood on his clothes, nor anything unusual in his manner ; he came to me for some bags to put wheat in.
Hector Angus, of Meadow Creek, near Mr. Murray's : I heard of the murder on the 21st February ; I saw the prisoner that day about sundown ; I have been acquainted with him ; he came to my house to ask about Neddy Stephens, who had been hurt by a dray ; prisoner came on a bay horse ; nothing particular passed between us ; be was, as near as I can recollect, dressed in moleskin trousers, blue striped shirt, and a cabbage-tree hat ; I do not remember if he had a coat and waist-coat ; he told me he had been getting bags to put wheat in ; be appeared to have some wheat bags on the horse.
George Caldwell : I heard of the murder on the 23nd February ; I saw the prisoner the night previous at my fence, about ten minutes before sundown ; he was on a bay horse ; I do not know what direction he went in after he crossed the ridge; when I saw the prisoner, it was half a mile from where the body was found.
James Keenan : I have known Neill about 20 years I summoned him once, with his daughter, before the Bench of Molong, about some cattle ; the prisoner blamed Moore and his wife for informing me about him ; he said be knew the informers, and would burn them to a bloody cinder ; this occurred about the 9th or 10th of January ; Moore and his wife did give me information about the prisoner and I placed Moore on his guard against the prisoner.
Cross examined : I did bear ill-feeling towards the prisoner about my cattle, but bear him no ill-will in this case.
James Hall deposed : I know prisoner ; I saw him at Iver's public house some months ago, and remember hearing him say Mrs. Moore deserved roasting, or a hit with a two-handed waddy ; he also expressed enmity towards me.
John Mears recalled : About five weeks before I went to apprehend prisoner I had occasion to go to his house ; Mrs. Moore (the deceased) was there ; I heard Mrs. Neill say "there's the witch, that's the bloody informer of this district ;" Neill said, "she wants murdering" (or burning).
Moore recalled : After seeing Mrs. Gough I took my bullocks to the corner of my paddock, and then went up my paddock ; after which I went out and cooeyed through the bushes ; passing Mr. Gough's house, I there asked if they had seen my wife ; I went out twice before I had my breakfast ; there was a little smoke rising from the fire when I first saw the remains of my wife.
This closed the case for the Crown.
Mr, Stephen then addressed the jury for the defence. He fervently hoped they would dismiss from their consideration altogether the evidence of the analytical chemist, as being too dangerous to rest the life of a human being upon, and commented most minutely on the various discrepancies which had presented themselves during the trial, and which tended to throw a reasonable and material doubt upon the guilt of the prisoner. The learned Counsel, without attempting to cast any imputation upon the husband of the deceased, contended that had he changed places in that Court with the prisoner, the same circumstances which had been construed so disadvantageously against his client, might never been used with equal probability of truth against him, and after a long and very eloquent address, called the following witnesses to prove that until midday on the morning on which the murder was committed, the prisoner had never quitted his house.
Christina Rogers, a German, living at the Canoblas, about a mile from the prisoner's house, where she was at half past 5 a.m., on the morning of the murder, to find Michael Neill, the prisoner's son, to assist her in drawing some timber. The door was shut, and she called out to them that the horses were eating their wheat. The prisoner was in his bedroom, and she went outside the house until he was dressed. The witness breakfasted with the prisoner and his family, and afterwards he asked her to help him to cut up some meat. He could not have been absent from the house half-an-hour all the morning.
This witness was subjected to a severe cross-examination, which, however, failed immediately to shake her evidence.
Alexander Brown, a ploughman, living at Orange heard of the murder of Mrs. Moore when he returned home the day after it occurred, having been at the prisoner's house on the morning of the 21st February, where he saw him and his family, and also the last witness, who came in during the morning.
Cross-examined : Witness came to the house about 6 o'clock ; Mrs. Rogers was not there then, she came in an hour afterwards. This witness contradicted the evidence, given by the former witness in many essential particulars ; William Johnson having been questioned by his Honor as to his knowledge of the nature of an oath, was called by the Attorney General, and said that he was at Mrs, Rogers' on the day of Mrs. Moore's funeral, and had some conversation with her on the subject of that murder, when she stated that Neill was innocent of it, as she was at his house on that morning.
The Attorney General then replied, combating the argument that any ill-will existed against the prisoner on tho port of the deceased's husband or neighbours, though he had imbibed a strong feeling of hatred against Moore and his wife in consequence of their cognisance of his cattle-stealing propensities. Although he had no wish to lay any undue stress on any feature in the evidence, yet he was not disposed to treat as without weight the fact that the clothes of the prisoner had been subjected to a long and tedious analysis, and that human blood had been discovered. on them. Sir William Manning then stated his opinion that the evidence for the defence had considerably strengthened that of the Crown, and entered upon a resume of the contradictory evidence given by the witnesses Rogers and Brown, in order to prove an alibi for the prisoner.
His Honor then summed up, quoting Tayor on the Law of Evidence with reference to circumstantial proof, and also to the value to be attached to the evidence of policemen and professional witnesses, and proceeded to go through the evidence given during the trial, commenting seriatim on the various points which bad presented themselves, and concluding by exhorting the jury, if any doubt existed in their minds as to the guilt of the prisoner, to give him the benefit of that doubt.
The jury, after an absence of nearly two hour returned into Court at a quarter to 10 p.m. with a verdict of guilty.
The prisoner, who received the announcement without any perceptible emotion, on being asked whether he had anything to say why sentence of death should not be pronounced upon him, merely avowed his innocence.
His Honor then, in the usual impressive formula, passed sentence of death upon the prisoner, at the same time holding out no hope of mercy.
The prisoner was then removed, still maintaining the same impassive demeanour. 19

It is not known how long Christina and her husband William stayed in the Canobolas area and worked at the mine until ...

With mining operations essentially ceasing for a period after 1867, miners and smelter men found it difficult to support their families in the area and at the Cadia village. New opportunities were presenting themselves at this time in a number of places to the west of the Orange district such as Carcoar and the Hill End region. Surnames which became familiar at Cadia tended to disappear and reappear in districts such as Forbes, Parkes and much further west at Cobar and Broken Hill. Familiarity of the Cadia men with the mining and smelting of ores containing copper, gold, silver, zinc and lead meant that these other places attracted their interest prodigiously and families moved out. 20

There is an 1874 death registration in Orange, NSW, for a William RODGERS, aged 68, that could be Christina's husband. 21

It would seem that Christiana returns to Sydney and re-marries for a fourth time to a Ludwig (aka Louis or Lewis) ZUFALL. 22 Ludwig was a boot and shoemaker with premises in Crystal street, 23 after moving from Parramatta road. 24

Ludwig ZUFALL's wife, Catherina, had died previously at Petersham. 25

On the 2nd November, at Petersham, CATHERINA, the beloved wife of LOUIS ZUFALL, aged 77 years. 26

Christina's marriage to Ludwig ZUFALL does not last long, as he passes away, at the age of 73, in 1877. 27 Ludwig was buried in a public or pauper's grave at the Rookwood Necropolis on 18 June 1877. 28

In the search for the origins of Christiana, and in the course of these discoveries, Julie Skellern found an 1894 VICTORIAN death index entry, that looked promising -

Name. Death Place. Age. Father's Name. Mother's Name. Registration Year. Registration Place. Registration No. Estimated Birth Year.
LIEBST Christina Margurethe Hawthorn, Victoria 88 VOGT Johan Bere HOFFMAN Margaretje 1894 Victoria 6103 abt 1806

These death registration details reveal that she was the wife of the late Nicholas August LIEBST, who died in South Australia on 2nd January 1875, aged 75 years.

LIEBST. —At her son-in-law's residence, No. 7 Power-street, Hawthorn, Christina Margarethe Liebst, a colonist of 40 years' standing, relict of the late August Liebst, late of Adelaide, and beloved mother of Mrs. M. Hattie, in her 88th year. Adelaide papers please copy. 29

Although this would appear to be the Christina we are looking for, but most likely NOT, it does reveal the Christian names of - “Margurethe” and “Margaretje”, which are a close match for the names on the marriage registration entry of Thomas ARNOTT at St James Church, Sydney in 1840.

Could it be, that Christiana's (or Christina's) surname on the 1840 Sydney marriage is just “missing” ? ; and that the names on this marriage registration, are ONLY her Christian names ?.

No death registration or burial details for Christiana have so far been "unearthed" …...... and that is where the saga is currently up to …... more research is required to unfold the ending and discover Christiana's origins ......

  • 1. AOT : Death Registration - RGD 1847/35/1
  • 2. NSW : Marriage Registration 1848/V411 33B Sydney - Witnesses were Alloezens Hoch of Brickfield Hill and Sophia Martin of Kent Street
  • 3. City of Sydney Archives : 1848 - CSA027177-054 #17/2/4
  • 4. NSW Police Gazette # 49 – July 1855
  • 5. SMH : 14 May 1855 page 4 - Article
  • 6. The Empire : 15 May 1855 page 6 - Article
  • 7. The Empire : 21 June 1855 page 5 - Article
  • 8. The Empire : 25 July 1855 page 2 - Article
  • 9. NSW : Office of Environment and Heritage - German Lutheran Church
  • 10. SMH : 25 October 1855 page 8 - Article
  • 11. The Empire : 9 July 1856 Edition 2, page 1 - Article
  • 12. The Empire : 27 September 1856 page 4 - Article
  • 13. SRNSW : Darlinghurst Gaol entrance books - SRO NSW (5/1891-2) NRS 2134 / compiled by Kaye Vernon and Billie Jacobsen
  • 14. SMH : 13 October 1855 page 4 - Article
  • 15. The Empire : 13 October 1856 page 2 - Article
  • 16. City of Sydney Archives : 1858 - CSA027182_048 #17/2/8
  • 17. The Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal : 21 March 1860 page 2 - Article
  • 18. The Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal : 24 March 1860 page 2 - Article
  • 19. The Empire : 24 March 1860 page 3 - Article
  • 20. Cadia History - The Making of Cadia Mine, Smelter and Village
  • 21. NSW Death Registration - 7010/1874
  • 22. NSW Marriage Registration - 870/1876
  • 23. City of Sydney Archives : Sands Directory 1875
  • 24. City of Sydney Archives : Sands Directory 1873
  • 25. NSW Death Registration - 2672/1872
  • 26. SMH : 27 December 1872 page 1 - Death notice
  • 27. NSW Death Registration - 965/1877
  • 28. Rookwood Cemetery : Area - Zone B, Section P, Grave # 722
  • 29. Argus : 26 June 1894 page 1 - Death notice