Ann Stokes was the daughter of Elizabeth Stokes and an unknown father. Her mother married Joseph Genders after Ann's birth but Ann retained the surname Stokes except on one occasion for a general muster in 1822. As there is no birth record for Ann we can only use calculations to determine when she was born. According to the age stated on her death registration (86 in 1883) Ann was born about 1797. At the inquest into her death Ann's stated age was 82, making her birth year 1801. These are important calculations because they point to Ann’s origins. If Ann was born about 1797 she must have been born in England and arrived in Australia with her mother Elizabeth Stokes, a convict who arrived aboard the Glatton on 11 Mar 1803. On the Convict Tales website Barbara McMahon has recorded that:
Elizabeth Stokes and 5 year old daughter Anne Stokes arrived in Sydney on the Glatton on 11 March 1803. They went on to Norfolk Island where Elizabeth took up with Joseph Genders (arr. Third Fleet).1
The reference to Norfolk Island and Joseph Genders is also important as there is alternative information that Ann was actually born about 1803 on Norfolk Island and is the daughter of Elizabeth Stokes and Joseph Genders.2 This is supported by the muster already referred to when Ann stated she was Ann Genders, "born in the colony".
Without proof the author's assumption using the simplest explanation is that Ann was indeed born on Norfolk Island. This is consistent with the lack of any mention of Ann Stokes on the voyage of the Glatton with her mother Elizabeth, although she may well have been pregnant at the time, and Ann's later statements on the 1822 muster. It must be conceded however that Ann also had good reasons to want to assume a local birth in a time when those who had the option would do just about anything to avoid the convict stain.
The first verifiable fact in Ann's life occurred when she "...arrived in Hobart, Tasmania [with Joseph Genders and his wife Elizabeth Stokes] on 2 October 1808 per the ship Edinburgh having left Norfolk Island 3 September 1808."3 While there is doubt about Ann's origins we can confirm she was on this journey which for a child between 5 and 10 must have been significant.
The Genders family would have been billeted out in the first instance until their land grant was arranged, and ultimately they settled at Kangaroo Point in the Clarence Plains district on the Eastern side of the Derwent. The colony was just five years old and there was a serious food shortage at the time. The next time Ann appears in the historical record is as Ann Genders in the 1822 muster of inhabitants of the colony. As previously noted this was the only time Ann used Joesph Gender's surname, and she was noted to have been 'born in the colony'.4
Judy Summers, a prominent Stokes researcher, came to the conclusion that Ann had three or possibly more children to an unknown father between 1825 and 1832.5 Ann’s first child was Elizabeth, born on 27 January 1825 and baptised on 31 March 1825 by the attending minister Robert Knopwood, probably in the Clarence district although the birth was registered in Hobart. The parent's names section has Ann Stokes but no father.6
Judy Summer’s also included a James Stokes as a child of Ann Stokes and an Unknown Father.7 No such birth registration has been found but a James Stokes (40) married Elizabeth Wate (36) on 16 April 1866 in Hobart, Tasmania.8 Ann Stokes and her later husband William Smedley would also name a son James so the duplication seems a little unlikely.
Judy was also convinced that a Joseph Stokes who later lived in the Circular Head area was a son of Ann Stokes but this has been contested with others believing that person was the convict who arrived in 1844 on the Lord Auckland.9 Joseph Stokes married Celia Wells in 1856 in the Horton district and his stated age was 25, making his birth year about 1831 which does fit the acceptable range to make him a child of Ann Stokes. The Joseph Stokes who arrived as a convict was aged 17 in 1843 making his birth year 1826.10 In the event the Joseph Stokes who married twice and had twenty children is related, his broad life story is included here. This possibility is enhanced by the fact that Joseph's son Joseph Minden Stokes named one of his children Joseph Gender's Stokes.
In the early 1830's Ann Stokes began a relationship with William Smedley, a convict who had been assigned to work in the Clarence district. William Smedley was baptised on 29 November 1805 in Bulwell, Nottinghamshire to William Smedley and Elizabeth Elliott. His parents had married 4 years earlier on 13 March 1801, also in Bulwell, and William was the third of their eleven children.11 Unfortunately six of their eleven children died in infancy or childhood.12
The family used very unique names for the period and location, Abijah and Gerveas, and this is a curious feature of this family. The name Abijah is the more common of the two, and is Hebrew in origin. It is a biblical unisex name meaning "my father is Yahweh".13 The meaning of the name Gearvas cannot be found but it seems reasonable to speculate that they were a religious family.
Bulwell is classified as an English Market Town and lies just over 7 kilometers to the north west of Nottingham city centre. People have been documented as living there since 800 A.D. no doubt setting up settlements next to the River Leen which narrows and runs shallower near Bulwell.14
If his parents were religious, perhaps fervently so, William must have been a huge disappointment to them. He was tried for stealing 30 dozen hoses or stockings at the Nottingham Quarter sessions on 9 January 1826. He was sentenced to seven years transportation and departed England from London aboard the Chapman on 10 April 1826.15 Charles Bateson's Convict Ships records that the transport was built at Whitby in 1777, weighed 558 Tons, called in at St. Jago and Rio De Janero, and arrived in Van Diemen's Land on the 7th of October 1826, taking 180 days to complete the journey.16
William's gaol report prior to transportation showed that he had offended before, three times he belonged to a gang, while his hulk report records his conduct as orderly. He was tried with a Joseph Clark for the same offence, who was transported along with him. He had once before served 12 months for stealing a waistcoat. His native place was given as Bulwell, Nottingham.17
Physical Description (1826)
- Height: 5'7"
- Eyes: Grey
- Hair: Brown
- Trade: Framework Knitter
- Tattoos: Fame and Trumpet; Angel, sun, moon and stars inside his right arm and on his left arm, also the initials TS, JS, PP and WH.
- 2 Moles on his left cheek and four on his neck.18
William Smedley's convict record depicts an unsettled individual:
"May 17th 1827 - -Bignell/Insolence and disobediance of orders, 25 Lashes (GWG & SHB)." Bignell was the name of the person bringing him before court, usually the person for whom they worked; the last lot of initials were those of the prosecutors in court at the time. "September 5th 1827 - Neglect of duty, insolence and using threatening language to his master, 25 Lashes and 3 weeks in the chain gang (GWG & SHB). January 28th 1828 - New F.Factory/Absent from the factory at which he was employed till near 10 o'clock last night, chain gang 7 days (PS). March 3rd 1828 - New Female Factory/Out after hours and being found in a disorderley house kept by a man named Cassidy at 1/2 past nine o'clock last night, tread wheel four days and returned to his party (PS). May 12th 1828 - NF Factory/Absconded from the prison on the 3rd of May and remained absent until apprehended on the 10th by Mr Capon, chain gang 2 months out of which the tread wheel 14 days at alternate periods (PS). January 30th 1830 - Charcoal Gang/Absent from muster on Friday night, tread wheel 6 days (F. Roper)."19
For the next five years William remained without conviction, and it was during this period that he began his liason with Ann Stokes. Ann was the daughter and adopted daughter of Elizabeth Stokes and Joseph Genders. William had worked in the Kangaroo Point area where the Genders family were living, and this is where the early baptisms of their children are recorded.
Their first child together was Margaret Smedley, born about 1832. No birth or baptism record has been found for Margaret but she consistently used the surname Smedley except on one occasion when she used the surname Stokes, her year of birth calculated from her age stated at marriage is consistent with the timing of her parents liaisons, and she interacted on a number of occasions with known members of the family.20
By 1833, if we assume that Judy Summer's conclusions about the family structure are correct, then the family would have been comprised of Ann Stokes (30), William Smedley (28), and the children Elizabeth Stokes (8), James Stokes (unknown), Joseph Stokes (2), and Margaret Smedley (an infant). There are no further references to a James Stokes as part of this family. Perhaps more research about the James who married in 1866 in Hobart will clarify the situation. At this point at least to the relief of later generations William and Ann started registering the birth of their children. Ann Smedley was born in the Clarence district on 31 August 1834.21
However, in 1835 William Smedley again ran foul of the authorities (the following transcription has had the conventional notation of the time expanded):
May 7th 1835 - Ticket of Leave/Stealing 6 Dollars of the value of 4/4d each and one other dollar of the value of 3/3d of the goods etc of Thomas Clark, Committed for trial/CPM/Two years at Constitution Hill Chain Gang, Rapley Vidi, Lieutenant Governors decision 10th July 1835. Free by servitude, tried and convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment with hard labour. Later the same month, July 1835 - Rapley/Absconding, recommended to be worked in irons for one month at Constitution Hill (F. Roper), then to remain under his former sentence out of irons Vide Lieut. Govs. decision the 6th of August 1835. October 21st 1835 - Road Party/Absconding, 6 months hard labour in irons (F. Roper and A. Mundy). December 10th 1835 - PW/possibly prisoners barracks/striking Sullivan his fellow prisoner with a stick in the face, cell during the following afternoon and Sunday (A. Mundy). December 11 1835 - PW (could be Pittwater)/Being insolent on his trial 36 Lashes (A. Mundy). "The remainder of this mans sentence of 2 years hard labour is remitted by His Excellency the Lieut. Gov. Vide Means Price Superintendant 4th May 1837."22
According to the Colonial Times in June 1835 William was also found guilty of stealing:
William Smeddler was charged with stealing two dollars from the shop of Mr. Hughson at Kangaroo Point - Verict Guilty.23
During his servitude he was at the Clarence Plains Muster (CPM) on the following occasions: 4 Jul 1835, Constitution Hill (CH) 14 Jul 1835, CPM 1 Aug 1835, CH 11 Aug 1835, CPM 23 Oct 1835, CH 31 May 1836, CH 2 May 1837 PS off.24
On 27 March 1838 William Smedley married Ann Stokes in the School House at Clarence Plains by Rev Knopwood. Both signed with their mark indicating they couldn't write. One of the witnesses was Robert Burgess of Kangaroo Point who would also witness the marriage of Ann's daughter Elizabeth to John Dobson, a convict, in 1840. William's surname has been incorrectly transcribed as Smedler in the Tasmanian Pioneer Index for the wedding registration.25
Around the time of their marriage the couple had another child, a boy John, born about 1838 or 1839.26 John Smedley is listed with the other Smedley children at the V.D.L. Co. School, age 9 in June 1848 and 11 in June 1849.27 Another son followed John when William Smedley (Junior) was born on 7 March 1840 in the Clarence district.28 For his baptism at Clarence Plains on 7 June 1840 William and Ann's abode was recorded as Coal River Road, Clarence.29
Prior to William Junior's baptism however was the baptism of Ann Smedley on 18 May 184030, and the marriage of Elizabeth Stokes and John Dobson on the same day as previously noted. The witnesses were Robert Burgess (who witnessed William and Ann's wedding) and Sarah Burgess of Kangaroo Point.31 John Dobson had arrived in the colony as a convict aboard the Surrey (3) in 1833.32 Ten children have been traced.
The association between the Smedley and Burgess families was confirmed in a newspaper report from June 1841 where Sarah Burgess and William Smedley were found guilty of assault:
Sarah Burgess and William Smedley charged by Mr. Moore with having assaulted him at Kangaroo Point; Mr. Moore proving the assault, his worship fined each defendant in the sum of 10s.33
In October 1841 Ann was still having her own children at the same time as her daughter Elizabeth when William and Ann had a son Thomas born on 31 October 1841 at Kangaroo Point in Clarence.34 Thomas was baptised just under a year later on 10 October 1842 in Clarence.35
In January 1842 William was remanded on a charge of felony:
William Fellows remanded on a charge of felony. William Smedley was remanded on a similar charge.36
William was kept imprisoned for six weeks, with a follow up report in The Courier a month later detailing the circumstances of the case:
William Smedley charged with stealing a bag, the property of Mr. Nicholls, of Clarence Plains. The man has been six weeks remanded, and is now held to bail to appear at the Quarter Sessions.37
William was granted bail and when the case was finally heard in late February he was acquitted of the charge:
William Smedley, who surrendered to his bail, was acquitted on a charge of stealing a sack, value 2s., the property of Mr. William Nicholls, of Clarence Plains.38
At the start of that year when the 1842 Census for Clarence Plains was taken, Ann was stated as head of the household, and given the later movements of the family we can assume William was probably in Circular Head, preparing for the family's relocation to that area. Their current home in Clarence was in Kangaroo Point Road, Kangaroo Point. Ann was living in a completed wooden house owned by a Mr. Webb, it was inhabited by 7 free people. Of those mentioned 6 were said to have been 'born in the colony' with one 'other free person', usually implying a person of prior convict status.39
We find William Smedley in the 1843 Census for Circular Head recorded as living at Forest near Black River in a common split-wood hut. The census was dated 1 January 1843 and at that time there were only two married men aged 21-45, at the location. Both had been convicts, were Church of England, and were in the mechanics and artificers class.40
By 1844 the move was complete as on 3 March 1844 in the Horton district William and Ann were blessed with the safe delivery of a son, James Smedley.41 James was the last of William and Ann's children, so that by the start of 1845 the Smedley family consisted of William (39), Ann (approx. 42), and their children Margaret (13), Ann (11), John (7), William (4), Thomas (2) and James (an infant).
When Margaret Smedley turned 16 she married Samuel Horton on 8 May 1848 in St. Paul's Church, Stanley. Neither Samuel or Margaret could read or write, making the customary 'mark' instead. He is listed as age 27, condition Bachelor, Trade Labourer; she as age 16, condition Spinster.42 Samuel, a native of Birmingham, had arrived in the colony as a convict aboard the Lady Raffles in 1840.43 Samuel and Margaret would go on to have 14 or 15 children over the next 30 years, all in the Horton district. There is no connection between family name and the district name.
Margaret and Samuel Horton were also witnesses to the marriage of Margaret's sister Ann to William Emmerton on 9 June 1851, also at St. Paul's Church in Stanley.44 William Emmerton, like Samuel Horton, was a convict, having arrived in the colony on the Canton in 1840.45 William and Ann Emmerton also had a large family of 16 children, two of whom married their Horton cousins.
In the 1850's these various men who had arrived here in such desperate circumstances were beginning to assume the elder status of their generation, and they were now land owners and fathers. Among the jurors listed for Horton in October 1856 were John Dobson and William Smedley, both listed as Farmers at Forest and real and personal estate of 500 pounds each. This was a lot of money for the time, Samuel Horton had an annual income from real and personal estate of only 50 pounds. John Dobson also paid 160 pounds for 80 acres in 1851.46
In 1855 William Smedley contributed 1 pound to the Patriotic War Fund.47
On 1 July 1856 Joseph Stokes, the potential son of Ann Smedley (nee Stokes) and an unknown father, married Celia Eliza Ann Wells.48 Joseph and Celia would go on to have ten children over the next 18 years.
William Smedley died on 10 May 1864 at Horton, Tasmania at the age of 59, a relatively young age in our time but William had certainly endured a large amount of change and hardship throughout his life.49
This is the last will and testament of me William Smedley of Circular Head in the County of Wellington in Tasmania, Yeoman. I give and bequeath to my wife Ann Smedley for her own user all my goods chattels monies and personal estate subject only to the payment of my just debts and funeral and testamentary expenses. And I appoint her sole executrix of this my Will. And I appoint William Wells of Ford's Road in the Forest at Circular Head aforesaid and Thomas John Bromby King of Byfield in the said County of Wellington Farmer to be trustees of this my will. And I give and devise to them and their heirs my farm containing seventy five acres or thereabout situate on Ford’s Road in the said Forest at Circular Head and all other real estate which may belong to me at the time of my decease. And I declare that my said trustees and the survivors of them…50
Five months after his father's death William Smedley (Junior) married Selina Mary Whitbread on 10 September 1864 in the home of her father at Stanley.51
SMEDLEY-WHITBREAD.-By special license, on the 10th September, at the Black River Inn, by the Rev. H. E. Draw, Mr. William Smedley, to Miss Selina Whitbread, both of Circular Head.52
Selina was born about 1848 in Stanley, the daughter of John Whitbread, a publican in Stanley, and Eliza Walley.53 Thirteen children have been traced.
William's brother Thomas married as well just 18 days later on 28 September 1864 to Matilda Martha Marchant, also in the Horton district.54 While their marriage registration has Matilda's surname as Marshall for the births of their nine children Matilda's surname was always recorded as Marchant. Doris Dalton, a descendant of this family, believes Matilda was the daughter of John and Elizabeth Marchant of London, and that she arrived in the Colony on 18 August 1858 aboard the Constance from Gravesend.55
The next family event occurred over a decade later when James Smedley married Ellen Lovell on 11 February 1878 in the Horton district.56 Three children have been traced. Just two months later Joseph Stokes married for a second time to Mary Ann M. Harris on 3 April 1878 in the Horton district.57 Joseph and Mary would have ten children which in addition to those from his first marriage made Joseph the father of twenty children.
On 22 June 1882 William and Ann's son John Smedley died in the Horton district at the reported age of 44. John’s rank or profession was recorded as Labourer, and the cause of death was recorded as natural causes, confirmed through an associated inquest.58 The inquest was held on 24 Jun 1882:
…at the house of Ann Smedley in Ford’s Road, Circular Head … before … George Anderson Esquire one of the Coroners … for the said Island … on view of the body of John Smedley upon the oaths of John Cryan, James Loftus Wells, James Smith, William Blake, William Emmerton, Joseph Stokes and William Lucas (who say) that John Smedley came to his death … during the afternoon of the twenty second day of June in the year aforesaid at Ford’s Road, Circular Head within the County aforesaid the said John Smedley having fallen down in a fit came to his death by the visitation of God from natural causes.59
John had never married. John's death was reported in the Mercury under the name George Smedley:
An old resident of Circular Head, George Smedley, died very suddenly at King's Forest on Thursday last, An inquest was hold on Saturday, before Mr. Geo. Anderson and a jury of seven. The evidence adduced showed that deceased had been ailing for about a fortnight, but had not regarded his illness as serious enough to call for medical assistance. The jury returned a verdict of "died from natural causes." Mr. Smedley, who was 44 years of age, was a native of Circular Head.60
Ann Smedley (nee Stokes) survived her husband for nearly another 20 years, and died on 31 December 1883 in Horton, Tasmania at the recorded age of 86, making her birth year about 1797. Ann was noted to be the widow of William Smedley and died from natural causes which was described as senile decay, an archaic term for the decline of old age. The event was registered by Archibald Grubb, sub-inspector of police at Stanley.61
An inquest was held into Ann's death, indicating that even though elderly Ann's death was considered sudden. George Anderson, the local coroner, convened the jurors to meet at Ann's house who upon:
"...view of the body of Ann Smedley ___ upon the oaths of William Lucas, William Ollington, John Cryan, Wiseman Spinks, Theodore Phillip Wells, James Loftus Wells, James Joseph Cryan, good and lawful men on the said Island and duly chosen and who being then and there duly sworn and charged to enquire for our said Lady the Queen when where how and after what manner the said Ann Smedley came to her death do upon their oath say that during the forenoon of the thirty first day of December in the year aforesaid at Ford's Road, Circular Head within the County aforesaid the said Ann Smedley was found dead in her bed and that the cause of her death in a natural way (was) by senile decay. In witness whereof ...
All the juror's signed. The inquest was also reported in the Tasmanian Police Gazette but on that occasion Ann's age was stated as 82, making her birth year about 1801.62
The fate of Ann's children and spouses is presented chronologically below:
Selina Smedley (nee Whitbread), the wife of WIlliam Smedley, died on 15 February 1894 in Forest, Tasmania.63
William Smedley married for the second time to Harriet Isabella Coffee on 28 April 1897 at Stanley, Tasmania.64
Margaret Horton, nee Smedley, died 10 May 1898 at Stanley, just 2 days after her 50th wedding anniversary.65 The Emu Bay Times and West Coast Advocate published the following death notice:
Notes from Stanley.— Our correspondent writes — Mrs Horton, sen, died at her residence at Black River on Wednesday. Her remains were interred in the burial ground at Black River on Thursday. The deceased, who was 82 years of age, was a very old resident. She reared a large family. Her stalwart sons are well known as prominent cricketers on the Coast. Another of the pioneer settlers gone; they are fast passing away.66
William Emmerton, the husband of Ann Smedley, died on 28 September 1899 in Stanley, Tasmania.67
Samuel Horton, the husband of Margaret Smedley, died on 3 May 1900 at Black River, although the cause of death at this point is unknown.68
William Smedley died on 20 July 1908 in Forest, Tasmania.69
Mr William Smedley, of South Road, died rather unexpectedly on Monday morning at his residence. He had been ill for about a week, and was making a fair rally towards recovery. He was 68 years of age, and leaves a numerous family, the youngest being about 18 months old. The rector conducted a short service at the house before proceeding with the interment, which took place at the West Forest Church of England burial ground, on Ford's Road. Mr Smedley was highly esteemed by all; was a good and kind neighbor, interfering with no one. He spent all his life at the Forest, never being further away than Wynvard on the one side and Montagu on the other. Unfortunately he died intestate.70
Matilda Smedley, nee Marchant, the wife of Thomas Smedley, died on 9 November 1908.71
Joseph Stokes died on 28 August 1911 at West Forest in Tasmania.72
James Smedley of Montagu, Tasmania died on 23 March 1913.73
Ann Emmerton, nee Smedley, died on 8 October 1914 in Forest, Tasmania.74
Ellen Smedley of Irish Town, Tasmania died on 16 May 1915.75
Thomas Smedley of Forest in Tasmania died on 23 March 1920.76 An obituary was published in the Circular Head Chronicle:
Mr. Thomas Smedley (Sen.), one of Circular Head's oldest (if not oldest) citizens died in March. He was born at Bellerive, Hobart and was married in St. Paul's Church, Stanley in 1864 to Miss Matilda Marshall. Matilda was born in England in 1839, and left the old country on May 4, 1858. She died on November 9, 1908 in her 69th year.
Mr. Smedley came to Circular Head in 1844 as a child of 2 years old with his parents. He was 78 years old on October 21st last year, so he had spent 76 years in the district. He was a farmer and had experienced the usual ups and downs of the man on the land but always came up smiling. He had a good memory and could recount many vivid recollections of the early pioneering and bushranging days. There were no roads and bridges [during] those times and as the late Mr. Smedley remarked to our reporter at the opening of the Stanley - Trowutta railway line - 'It is good to see the train running at last.'
His wife died some years ago, but he leaves a family of five sons (Alfred, Thomas, Percy, Henry and Maurice) and two daughters (Mrs. Harman of Melbourne and Mrs. E. Sutton of Burnie) for whom much sympathy is felt.77
- 1. Perth Dead Persons Society: http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/con132.htm
- 2. Judy Summers also proposes that Ann came with her mother Elizabeth aboard the Glatton, while C. J. Smee in "Third fleet families of Australia containing genealogical details of three hundred & eleven third fleeters, their children & grandchildren" records Ann as being born on Norfolk Island circa 1803.
- 3. Schaffer: Lists (Appendix II: Fifth Embarkation, p. 226)
- 4. Schaffer: Lists (List 11:2, p. 198)
- 5. Summers, Judy: Facsimile Correspondence to John Horton.
- 6. TAHO Baptism Registration RGD 1825/1794
- 7. Summers, Judy: Facsimile Correspondence to John Horton.
- 8. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1866/210
- 9. Summers, Judy: Facsimile Correspondence to John Horton and TAHO Convict Conduct record, Indent and Description CON33/1/61, CON14/1/30 and CON18/1/38
- 10. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1856/119 and TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON33/1/61
- 11. IGI Marriage Registration Batch Number: A184600; Sheet: 00; Source Call No.: 184600
- 12. IGI Baptism Registration Film Number: 537956, and Film Number: 537733
- 13. Wikipedia entry for Abijah: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abijah
- 14. Wikipedia entry for Bulwell: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulwell
- 15. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON31/1/38
- 16. Bateson, Charles, The Convict Ships: 1787-1868, Brown, Son & Ferguson, Ltd. Glasgow, (19??).
- 17. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON31/1/38
- 18. TAHO Convict Description Record CON23/1/3
- 19. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON31/1/38
- 20. Margaret Smedley's birth was never registered so her birth date has been calculated from the age stated at marriage, and at death. Margaret did use the surname Stokes for the births of one of her children, and was a witness to the marriage of her sister Ann to William Emmerton.
- 21. TAHO Baptism Registration RGD 1840/1217
- 22. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON31/1/38
- 23. Colonial Times Tuesday 30 June 1835
- 24. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON31/1/38
- 25. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1838/4297
- 26. John Smedley's birth was never registered so his birth date has been calculated from the age stated at school registration, and at death. John's existence in the family is supported by these related documents.
- 27. TAHO Van Diemen's Land Company Papers VDL 17 page 9
- 28. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1840/1218
- 29. TAHO Baptism Registration NS373/12
- 30. TAHO Baptism Registration NS373/12
- 31. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1840/874
- 32. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON31/1/10; CON27/1/6; CON18/1/20 and Colonial Secretary's Office Correspondence CSO1/1/649 14579
- 33. Colonial Times Tuesday 1 June 1841
- 34. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1842/1981
- 35. TAHO Baptism Registration NS373/12
- 36. Colonial Times Tuesday 18 January 1842
- 37. The Courier Friday 4 February 1842
- 38. Colonial Times Tuesday 1 March 1842 and The Courier Friday 4 March 1842
- 39. TAHO Census Records CEN1/39 p. 237
- 40. TAHO Census Records CEN1/49 p. 95
- 41. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1844/403 (Note: James was recorded as an Unnamed Male for this event).
- 42. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1856/1956
- 43. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON33/1/6; Appropriation List: CON27/1/8; Indent: CON14/1/8 and Description List: CON18/1/26
- 44. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1851/621
- 45. TAHO Convict Conduct Record CON31/1/12; Appropriation List: CON27/1/8; Description List: CON18/1/5 p325
- 46. Allen, Diane, "Smedley Family File."
- 47. The Courier Saturday 2 June 1855
- 48. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1856/XXXX
- 49. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1864/227
- 50. TAHO Last Will and Testament AD960/7, Will No. 165, p. 1071
- 51. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1864/389
- 52. The Mercury Saturday 22 October 1864
- 53. Crawley, Jennifer: Email Correspondence with John Horton; 30 Apr 2005
- 54. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1864/391
- 55. Dalton, Doris: Email Correspondence to John Horton; 29 Sep 2007
- 56. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1878/480
- 57. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1878/481
- 58. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1882/357
- 59. TAHO Inquest SC195/1/62 Inquest 8517 and POL709/1/19 p. 122 (1882)
- 60. The Mercury Monday 3 July 1882
- 61. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1884/314
- 62. TAHO Inquest SC195/1/63 Inquest 8767 and POL709/1/20 p. 7 (1884)
- 63. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1894/721
- 64. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1897/XXXX
- 65. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1898/945
- 66. Emu Bay Times and North West and West Coast Advocate Tuesday 17 May 1898
- 67. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1899/848
- 68. TFI Death Registration RGD 1900/1187
- 69. TFI Death Registration RGD 1908/858
- 70. "Personal." Circular Head Chronicle (Stanley, Tas. : 1906 - 1954) 22 July 1908: 2. Web. 25 May 2018; http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160984479.
- 71. TFI Death Registration RGD 1908/869
- 72. TFI Death Registration RGD 1911/792
- 73. TFI Death Registration RGD 1913/694
- 74. TFI Death Registration RGD 1914/852
- 75. TFI Death Registration RGD 1915/1392
- 76. TFI Death Registration RGD 1920/1909
- 77. Chronicle News 1920 - Obituaries