The following biography was written with the assistance of Janine Wood, who provided the impetus for its development, as well as significant Gray family documentation.
Thomas Gray was born about 1808 in Dublin, Leinster, Ireland.1 Leinster is one of four provinces in Ireland.
The number of provinces and their delimitation fluctuated until 1610 when they were permanently set by the English administration of James I. The provinces of Ireland no longer serve administrative or political purposes, but function as historical and cultural entities.2
Thomas’ parents are not known at this point, although his death notice included some interesting family relationships which will be followed up in due course. Thomas Patrick Gray, as he was styled, married Mary McGuire on 19 June 1825 in St. Michaels and Johns in the city of Dublin.3 Mary was born about 1810 in Dublin, but nothing further is known as Mary’s origins either. According to a researcher on the WikiTree website:
The marriage cert[ificate] of 19 June 1825 at St Michael's and John's, Dublin, seems to be for them because her name is correct, but he is listed as Thomas Patrick Gray. This is a Catholic Church, which Mary was, but Tom was protestant … maybe he changed his name for the Catholic occasion? Or maybe he was distancing himself from his family who would not have been one tiny teeny bit impressed that he was marrying a Catholic. Maybe this was also why they took the drastic step of moving to the far ends of the earth.4
As that final sentence indicates, Thomas and Mary made the bold move to emigrate to Van Diemen’s Land, but before doing that they had a number of children while still in Ireland.
|bp. 13 Apr 1826
|Remained Single||dd. 06 Nov 1900
Stanley, TAS, AUS6
|bn. 00 XXX 1829
|Remained Single||dd. 25 Aug 1848
Horton, TAS, AUS8
|bn. 00 XXX 1831
|dd. 15 Jul 1860
At Sea, AUS10
Thomas and Mary, along with their three children, left Dublin aboard the Strathfieldsaye on 5 March 1833. They arrived in Hobart Town, Van Diemen’s Land on 26 June 1833 as advertised in one of the newspapers of the day, the Hobart Town Courier.
Arrived on Wednesday the 26th inst. the ship Strathfieldsay, 476 tons, Capt. Philip Jones, from Dublin 5th March, with a general cargo of goods. Passengers Mr. Ferguson, Mr. Fulton, Mr. Corry, Miss M. Graves, Miss Eliza Collins-with 193 adults and 116 children, in all 319 in the steerage.11
Thomas was provided with a letter of introduction to facilitate the immigration process.12
Letter of Introduction for Thomas Gray
Tasmanian Archives and Heritage Office
Once in their new home Thomas and Mary continued adding to their family.
|bn. 00 XXX 1837
Unknown, TAS, AUS13
|dd. 08 Mar 1879
Horton TAS, AUS14
|bn. 00 XXX 1840
Unknown, TAS, AUS15
|bn. 14 Apr 1843
Horton, TAS, AUS16
|bb. 26 May 1845
Horton, TAS, AUS17
|dd. 00 XXX 1930
Sydney, NSW, AUS18
|bb. 26 May 1845
Horton, TAS, AUS19
|ATKINS, William||dd. 22 Dec 1912
Cheltenham, VIC, AUS20
|bb. 17 Mar 1848
Horton, TAS, AUS21
|dd. 09 Jan 1920
Northcote, VIC, AUS22
|bb. 04 Jun 1850
Horton, TAS, AUS23
|dd. 20 Jan 1927
Forest, TAS, AUS24
Janine Wood, a Gray and Hughes family researcher, has identified a troubling potential scenario where one of Thomas and Mary’s daughter may have been sentenced to detention in the local Female Factory. It has not been proved that the following newspaper report from April 1841 is about a daughter of Thomas Gray’s, but Eleanor Frances Gray was certainly around the right age at the time.
We acknowledge the receipt of a letter from Thomas Gray, a free emigrant, who complains that his daughter, of thirteen years of age, was sentenced to the Female Factory for twenty-eight days, for misconduct to her mistress in her hired service. We can enter into the very natural feelings of Mr. Gray, and agree with him that so young a child ought not to have been sent to the Factory ; but the committing magistrate, Mr. G. S. Davies, was perfectly justified, under the Act of Council for the efficient control of servants in hired service, in awarding the punishment. In the case alluded to the sentence was severe. Could not a pecuniary penalty for the offence have been in flicked? The bare idea of sending a young girl, thirteen years of age, free and uninitiated into vice, to the Factory, to herd with the most wanton, vicious, and degraded of her sex, is enough to chill the blood in the veins or any Christian being the father of a family, but we will make enquiry into the case before we permit our feelings to ooze out at the point of the pen.25
These were challenging times for a parent. Thomas and Mary’s oldest son William died on 25 August 1848 in the Horton district at the age of 19 (reported as about 18). The cause of death was bronchitis. Andrew Mowbray, a Surgeon, registered the event.26
The first of Thomas and Mary’s children to marry was Eleanor Frances Gray (recorded as Ellen, age 23) who married John Dolan (25) on 5 February 1857 in the Church of St. Marys in Circular Head. The witnesses were James Gray and Mary Ann Gray. John was recorded as a “Skipper” and Ellen as a Farmer’s daughter.27 According to Janine Wood “John Dolan was the skipper of a boat that carried supplies from Tas to Victoria.” Eleanor and John had one child that has been traced.
In July 1857 Thomas Gray was a signatory to the following open letter complaining about the abolishment of the Office of Police Magistrate for the Circular Head district.
July 29,1857. 2412
To His Excellency Sir Henry Edward Fox Young, Knight, Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of the Colony of Tasmania and its Dependencies, &c &c &c$c. The MEMORIAL of the Inhabitants of the Circular Head District, Respectfully Sheweth,
That Your Memorialists have heard with alarm that it is the intention of Your Excellency's Government to abolish the office of Police Magistrate for this district from the 31st July, 1857.
That Your Memorialists, whilst aware of the necessity for reducing the official staff of the colony, would point out that this district is far differently situated from others, especially the inland districts, as regards the want of a Police Magistrate, and that an exception ought to be made in favour of it, as we have a seaboard of some hundred miles, with vessels trading to six different ports or rivers within the same.
That Your Memorialists feel that the withdrawal of the Police Magistrate (the police force being already reduced) will be a positive and serious injury to the interests of the inhabitants of this district. That Your Memorialists respectfully consider that as a large sum is paid to the Government annually from this district arising from shipping dues, duties, wharfage, &c. &e., they have a fair claim on the Government for protection.
That Your Memorialists would point out that while there are only two Justices of the Peace residing at Circular Head, (both of whom object to have to perform the whole of the duties devolving upon a Police Magistrate) there is a rapidly increasing population of some 1600 souls within the district.
That Your Memorialists would also draw the attention of Your Excellency to the fact that this district is practically a separate part of the colony, having communication with other parts only by water, and that while in other districts the assistance of a Police Magistrate is easily obtained, in this district it would cost more annually to pay the travelling expenses of a visiting magistrate (should one be appointed) than the salary of a resident magistrate would amount to.
That Your Memorialists do respectfully pray that Your Excellency in Council may be pleased to reconsider your decision, and that the office of Police Magistrate for this district may not be abolished, and that our present Police Magistrate, (H. T. A. Murray, Esquire) in whom we have every confidence, and who has filled the office with credit to himself, and to the satisfaction of your Memorialists, may still be retained amongst us. And Your Memorialists as in duty bound will ever pray, &c. &c. (Signed) …Thomas Gray. Landowner (and many others – Ed.).28
After just three years of marriage Eleanor Francis Dolan, nee Gray, died on 15 July 1860 while at sea.29 Janine Wood has provided some insight into Eleanor’s fate.
Ellen was pregnant when she died aboard their boat, the Pioneer. As the death cert shows she also had dysentery. She was buried in the Melbourne Cemetery and the death was recorded as Cheltenham, because the boat was in the bay off Cheltenham.30
The fate of Eleanor’s husband, John Dolan, is at this point unknown.
Eleanor’s sister Margaret Louisa Gray (18) married William Atkins (21) on 6 February 1864 in St. Mary’s Church in Circular Head. William was described as a Farmer and Margaret as a Farmer’s Daughter. The witnesses were Thomas Gray and Clorinda Gray.31 William was born on 22 January 1843 in the Horton district, the son of Samuel Atkins and Jane Ayres.32 Margaret and William would go on to have seven children that have been traced.
In the month following, March 1864, Thomas Gray was mentioned in the Launceston Examiner as the landlord of the Traveller’s Rest hotel in Circular Head after it was alleged he had stolen property from the Stanley Reading Room.
STEALING NEWSPAPERS-On Wednesday 24th ult., Thomas Gray, landlord of the Travellers' Rest, Circular Head, was tried before F. W. Ford, Esq., J.P., for having in his possession several numbers of the Illustrated London News, stolen from the Stanley Reading Room on the 6th. The newspapers were found on his premises under a search warrant, and identified by the committee as their property, being branded with their stamp. The prisoner, whilst at the bar, charged a man known as Scotty Elder with stealing the papers. T.A. Murray, Esq., P.M., declined to sit on the beach; being a subscriber to the institution, and acted as prosecutor. Thomas Gray was discharged, and Scotty Elder is remanded for a week. 33
Thomas was again mentioned in relation to the Traveller’s Rest hotel in June 1864 when he tried selling the lease due to ill health.
On lease for 7 or 8 years at Circular Head, 6 miles from the township of stanley, a public house, known as the 'Traveller's Rest’, within a few minutes’ walk of Mr Stutchberry's saw mills, on the Great South Road, 3 1/2 miles from the township of Stanley, with a blacksmith's shop thereon. Also, everything necessary for a roadside public house. Also, 5 building allotment - with cottage thereon, bringing a small rent. Also, 80 acres of good land, bounded by a never failing creek of water, 50 acres cleared, of which 40 acres is fenced, and a cottage thereon. Desirable situations for dairy farm or butchering establishment. Apply to the owner, Thomas Gray, Circular Head, South Road. The only reason for giving up the business, is it does not agree with his health. No person need apply who cannot give the rent in hand for the term of lease, 100 pounds sterling per year.34
In November 1868 Thomas was advertising entertainment in opposition to the Stanley Reading Room so potentially there was a strained relationship between Thomas and the institution.
STANLEY READING ROOM -Our correspondent writes:--Several gentlemen interested in the penny readings, and in order to afford a treat to families who cannot attend the Reading Room at Stanley, gave an entertainment in Mr. Thomas Gray's large room, South-road, on Thursday, 20th ult., to a very large attendance, on account of a number of ladies and gentlemen going out from Stanley on horseback and otherwise in order by their appearance to show their appreciation of the interest taken in the readings, affording amusement and benefit to many families who never have an opportunity of witnessing anything of the sort from one year's end to another. The following is the programme: Nothing but Care, Mr. Edwards; Sydney Rock Oysters, Mr. Spicer; Dora, Rev. H. E. Drew; Bushrangers and Burglars, Mr. A. T. Mayson ; Adventure in the Hoyle, Mr. E. Stutterd; Musical Butcher, Mr. T. Barrett ; The Engineer, Mr. Parsons; The Gridiron, Mr. A. Clerke.35
On 21 November 1864 Thomas and Mary’s daughter Theresa Maria Gray (24) married John Hughes (Full Age) in the Kings Forest Church in the Horton district. John was described as a Sawyer and the witnesses were Thomas and Peter Gray.36 John was born on 7 February 1819 in Llannon, Carmarthenshire, Wales, the son of Morgan Hugh and Mary Rees.37 John and Theresa would go on to have two children that have been traced.
Theresa’s brother Peter Gray never married but he is known to have had three children in the late 1860s and early 1870s with Jane Spinks, the daughter of John Spinks and Sophia Frances. Jane was born on 20 August 1849 in the Horton district, and would eventually marry Robert Boot (or Boote) and have further children.38
Janine Wood has revealed that Peter Gray was in trouble with the law a number of times around this time as well, with a warrant issued for his arrest for absenting himself from the hired service of Patrick Brehany in Aug 1870. He was also sentenced to one month’s incarceration for larceny at one point, and arrested for stealing two axes, a fork and a spade found planted on the property of Patrick Brehany. In September 1871 he stole a horse and escaped, ultimately landing himself another three months in jail.39
Just a year after that final incident Peter’s father Thomas Gray was dead, the cause recorded as Cancer of the Neck and Throat. Thomas died on 20 March 1872 in the Horton district. His stated age was 64 and his rank or profession was farmer. The informant for the event was Thomas Gray Jnr. of Forest.40
GRAY. On the 20th of March, Thomas Pinnorma Gray, of Leinster Hill, Circular Head, first cousin to the Rev. William Bernard Cole, Doctor of Divinity, minister of the Church of England, of Bolton Street, Dublin, and cousin to Captain Graham, and nephew to Waltar Marian, Captain of Her Majesty's 63rd Regiment. (Dublin and New Zealand papers please copy.) 41
There is much in that death notice that requires further investigation and which may contribute further detail to the story of Thomas Gray. For the moment, the fate of the remaining members of Thomas’ family will have to suffice.
Thomas and Mary’s seventh child and fourth daughter, Clarinda Gray (25), married Edward Westbrook Cozens (30) on 29 March 1875 at Duck River in Circular Head. Edward was described as a Farmer and Clarinda as a Servant. The witnesses were James H. Gray and Mary A. Gray.42 Edward was born on 11 March 1843 in Launceston, Tasmania, the son of William Cozens and Emma Westbrook.43 Clarinda and Edward would go on to have four children that have been traced.
Thomas and Mary’s fourth child and second son, James Henry Gray, died on 8 March 1879 in the Horton district as the result of an accident.44
(From another Correspondent.)
A most distressing accident happened on Saturday afternoon, 8th instant, about 4 o'clock, which resulted in the death of Mr. James H. Gray, the road contractor for the Irish Town section, and serious injury to Francis Gorman, son of a farmer living at the above place. The news reached Stanley on the same evening at eight o'clock, and cast a gloom over all. Mr Gray was much respected, and his many friends were pleased that his contract for the work had been accepted, feeling sure the work would be carried out faithfully, and trusting that it would prove remunerative to him. The deceased had occupied the position of Harbour Master at the Duck River, where he resided for many years, and has been an energetic and useful man in matters connected to mining explorations and everything liable to benefit the district he resided in. During the latter part of last year he accompanied Mr. Lord in an expedition through to the Pieman River, in search of a practicable route from the Duck River. His untimely end, which was caused through a fall of gravel in a pit he was working in, is much regretted, and great sympathy is felt for his widow and family. An official enquiry was held at the Duck River by H. J. Emmett, Esq. Coroner, this morning at 11 o’clock, when from the evidence of several witnesses it appeared that the deceased and the lad Goram were working in the pit, the former cutting a chamber and the latter under-mining, several other men working close at hand. Without any warning a fall of about five tons gave way and wholly buried the deceased and partially so Goram. All the available assistance at hand was procured, and the utmost haste made to expiate both. The lad, who was extensively bruised across the loins, was soon out and laid upon the bank, but it took fully half an-hour to remove the ground from Gray, though the men had discovered he was dead upon removing a large lump of the gravel that had fallen on him. The evidence as to the cause of death showed that the skull was frightfully shattered, the brain protruding, and the neck broken, and the verdict was to the effect that the deceased met his death accidentally by a fall of gravel.
I am happy to be able to report that the lad Goram is a little easier, and great hopes are entertained of his recovery.
The funeral will take place this day (Tuesday) 11 instant at Stanley. Body to be brought in for that purpose.45
In August the same year, 1879, William Atkins, the husband of Margaret Louisa Gray, died in the Horton district. The cause of death was consumption, or tuberculosis. William was described as a shoemaker, and the informant for the event was his mother Jane Atkins.46 An alarming number of the Atkins family suffered the same fate.
A more joyous occasion occurred the following year when Thomas and Mary’s youngest son Clement Lewis Gray (26) married Emma Auguste Illgen (19) on 29 March 1880 in “the dwelling house of Mr. Illgen, Mount Bischoff". Clement was described as a Miner and the witnesses were Karl Wilhelm Illgen, Mary Jane Reed and Karl Smith Illgen.47 Emma was born about 1861 in Germany, the daughter of Karl Wilhelm Illgen and Caroline Auguste Schmalfub.48 Clement and Emma would go on to have eight children that have been traced.
Across Bass Strait in the Geelong region, the husband of Clarinda Gray, Edward Westbrook Cozens died on 21 November 1880. The cause of death is unknown.49
Cozens. On the 21st November, at Herne Hill, Geelong, at the residence of his brother, W. H. Cozens, Edmund Westbrook, youngest son of the late W. Cozens, of Launceston, Tasmania, in his 37th year. Funeral will leave for the New General Cemetery at three o'clock this day. Friends please accept this intimation.50
Mary Gray, nee McGuire, outlived her husband for another 13 years, dying on 7 July 1885 in the Horton district. The cause of death was recorded as Senility, and the informant was Clement Gray, Mary’s youngest son.51
Clarinda Gray remarried after the death of her first husband, to John James Bennett, also a widower, on 20 April 1891 in Deloraine, Tasmania.52 John was born on 22 December 1847 in Campbell Town, Tasmania, the son of James Joseph Bennett and Mary Ann Marsh.53 No children have been traced for the couple and later reports state that the couple no longer lived with one another after 1895. That fact was revealed in 1899 when John was charged with bigamy. He had married for a second time on 17 April 1899, as James John Bennett, to Lucy Ellen Adelaide Atwell in the Mersey district, but he had never been divorced from Clarinda.54
RURAL POLICE COURTS.
At the Police Court this morning, before Messrs. F. C. Greene and A. Boatwright, Js.P., John Bennett was charged with having on April 17 married Lucy Attewell, his wife being then alive. Sub Insrector T. B. Collett prosecuted, and Mr. R. M. Ritchie appeared for the accused, who reserved his defence. After hearing a quantity of evidence, accused was committed for trial at the next Supreme Court, bail being allowed, himself in £100 and one surety of £100, which was forthcoming.55
There were at least two men in Tasmania in the late 1800s with that name but the next newspaper article identifies that John Bennett married a widow in 1891, and the only marriage that fits that description is the event involving Clarinda.
THE CRIMINAL CALENDAR.
Wednesday, June 21. ]
Before the Chief Justice (Hon. J. S.Dodds).
Bigamy. John James Bennett pleaded guilty to in having committed bigamy at Latrobe on April 17, 1899. Hon. R. B. Miller, who appeared for the prisoner, said there could be no doubt he was half-witted, though the evidence would not have shown him to be legally insane. The affair was a legal rather than a moral infraction of the law. Counsel would hand in a certificate from Dr. Thompson, who had attended the prisoner for 15 or 16 years, and regarded him as a simple character ; in fact, a " shingle short." Accused, who was a son of the late J. Bennett, married a widow with a large family in 1891, but in 1895 she refused to live with him. The children were then maintaining themselves, and the wife, although she declined to live with her husband, took proceedings against him in the Police Court for maintenance. Two cases of this character were dismissed. The prisoner was without a home when he met a girl who, in spite of her knowledge that he was married, consented to take the position of wife, and subsequently persuaded him to take steps to go through the form, of marriage. They were marrled at the Latrobe Tabernacle, the man representing to the minister that he was a widower. The mother of the girl, counsel said, also consented to the marriage, and as no injury had been done to anybody, and in view of the state of the prisoner's mind, Mr. Miller pleaded that the court would exercise its prerogative of lenience.
The Solicitor-General (Hon. Alfred Dobson), who prosecuted on behalf of the Crown, thought, if he might say so, that his learned friend had taken the only possible course in the prisoner's favour. So far as he knew, Mr. Miller had stated the case correctly. It was not one in which injury had been done to a single girl under the pretence of a man that he was not married. He could bear out what his learned friend had said as to prisoner being of weak intellect, and he would leave the case in the hands of the court, in order to vindicate the law.
His Honor - There is the fact that there has been no injury done to anyone?
The Solicitor-General-No, your Honor.
His Honor, addressing the prisoner, accepted Mr. Miller's contention that no injury had apparently been done to anyone, for the one woman had voluntarily left her home and the other had then chosen to, cohabit with him. He would therefore treat the case, as Mr. Miller had suggested, rather as a legal than a moral infraction of the law. It was, however, the duty of the Crown to, bring the case forward, but in view of all the circumstances he would sentence prisoner to be imprisoned only until the rising of the court.56
Mary Ann Gray, Thomas and Mary’s eldest child and daughter, died on 6 November 1900 in Stanley, Tasmania. No marriage has been found for Mary Ann so it is presumed she remained single. Mary Ann was buried in the Pioneer’s Cemetery in Stanley.57
John Hughes, the husband of Theresa Gray, died on 8 January 1905 in Waratah, Tasmania.58 Janine Woods reports that John’s Welsh name was Jac (no K) Ty-Isha. The English forced Anglicisation of names upon the Welsh. He is still known and revered in Wales as Jac Ty-Isha with monuments to him.59
The next event to occur on the Gray family timeline was the death of Margaret Louisa Atkins, nee Gray, on 22 May 1912 in the Benevolent Asylum in Cheltenham, Victoria. The cause of death was Paralysis Agitans, an archaic term of Parkinson’s Disease. Margaret was recorded as the daughter of Thomas Grey and Maria Dwyer, but the error is not surprising as the informant was Thomas Harper, an authorised agent of the Benevolent Asylum.60
The Benevolent Asylum had been around since the 1850s, initially in North Melbourne and then moved to Cheltenham around 1911. The move was completed in stages with the first group to leave being one hundred and twenty five inmates from the women’s invalid wards. It took five hours to load the furniture vans and three days to move all the residents from their old North Melbourne home to Cheltenham. In total 513 were transferred and of that number 313 were bed ridden.61
Also in Victoria, Thomas Gray Jnr. died on 9 January 1920 in Northcote. His parents were recorded as Thomas Gray and Maria McDermott.62 An obituary was published a couple of weeks later in the Circular Head Chronicle.
A correspondent writes from Melbourne:- “An old identity of Circular Head, in the person of Mr. Thomas Gray, passed away at Northcote, Victoria, on Friday, 9th January, 1920. The deceased was a member of the well-known and highly-respected Gray family of West Forest. Mr. Clem Gray (of Forest), a brother, is the only surviving representative. Messrs Peter and Thos. Atkins, of Waratah, are nephews. The late Mr. Gray must have been among the oldest residents of the district, his age at the time of his death being about 90 years. More than 50 years age, he was well known on the N.W Coast, and also on the mining fields of Tasmania. The interment took place at Coburg cemetery on Saturday, 10th Jan.63
Back in Tasmania, John James Bennett, the second husband of Clarinda Gray, died on 23 February 1920 in Launceston, Tasmania. The event was registered under the name James Bennett.64 This wasn’t unusual as John had been identified as James John Bennett when he bigamously married Lucy Atwell in 1899.
The funeral of the late James Bennett will take place this day (Tuesday), February 24th, upon arrival of the 4 o'clock train at Deloraine, for interment St. Mark's Churchyard. Friends are respectfully invited.65
Emma Gray, nee Illgen, the wife of Clement Gray, died on 3 December 1923 in North Forest, Tasmania.
GRAY. On December 3, at her late residence, Leinster Hill, North Forest, Emma Augusta, beloved wife of Clement L. Gray, in her 64th year.66
Clement Lewis Gray died just over three years later on 20 January 1927 in Forest, Tasmania.
GRAY. On January 20, at his residence, Forest, Clement Lewis Gray, relict of the late Emma Gray, in his 76th year.
GRAY. The funeral of the late Clement Lewis Gray will leave his late residence, Forest, to-morrow (Saturday), at 3 p.m., for the Stanley Cemetery.67
An obituary was published in the Advocate the day after his death.
MR. CLEMENT LEWIS GRAY, of Forest, who has been in ill-health for several months, passed away at his residence yesterday afternoon at the age of 76 years. The deceased had resided at Forest for the past 40 years, during which time he was engaged in agricultural pursuits. He was a well known and generally, respected resident of the district. Mrs. Gray died three years ago last December. Members of the family are: Misses Mary and Eva Gray and Mrs. Sharpe (Sydney), and Messrs. Clement (Burnie), James (Burnie), Carl (Waratah), and William (Forest). The funeral will leave deceased's late residence to-morrow afternoon at 3 o'clock for the Stanley cemetery.68
An interesting aside is that Clement’s son Clement Jnr. would go on to write numerous articles and poems under the non-de-plume Daybreak, earning him the title “Poet Laureate of Circular Head.”
The last known death of one of Thomas and Mary’s children was when Clarinda Bennett, formerly Cozens, nee Gray, died on 17 July 1930 in Sydney, New South Wales. The cause of death is not known.69
BENNETT. July 17. 1930. at St. Vincent's Hospital, Clarinda Bennett, beloved mother of Edmund and Gertrude Cozens and Ann Nicholl, aged 80 years. R.I.P.70
- The fate of Theresa Mary Hughes, nee Gray.
- The fate of Peter Gray.
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- 6. TAMIOT: Gray, Mary Ann, born Dublin Ireland, Buried Stanley Old Pioneer Cemetery CH12/C0808
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- 17. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1845/430
- 18. NSW BDM Death Registration 10664/1930
- 19. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1845/431
- 20. VIC BDM Death Registration 1912/5034
- 21. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1848/496 (Registered as an Un-named Male at birth)
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- 23. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1850/553
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- 29. VIC BDM Death Registration 1860/7419
- 30. Wood, Janine: Email Correspondence with John Horton; 09 Dec 2018
- 31. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1864/79 (RGD37/1/23 no 79)
- 32. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1843/375 (RGD33/1/27/ no 375)
- 33. "HOBART TOWN AND THE SOUTH." Launceston Examiner (Tas. : 1842 - 1899) 5 March 1864: 4 (MORNING.). Web. 8 Dec 2018; http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article38651217.
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- 35. "OUR MONTHLY SUMMARY." Launceston Examiner (Tas. : 1842 - 1899) 5 November 1868: 2. Web. 8 Dec 2018; http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36700655.
- 36. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1864/394 (RGD37/1/23 no 394)
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- 38. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1849/523
- 39. Wood, Janine: Email Correspondence with John Horton; 09 Dec 2018 citing Reports of Crime, Tasmania.
- 40. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1872/202
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- 42. TAHO Marriage Registration RGD 1875/357 (RGD37/1/34 no 357)
- 43. TAHO Birth Registration RGD 1843/1431 (RGD33/1/23/ no 1431)
- 44. TAHO Death Registration RGD 1879/265
- 45. "(From another Correspondent.)" Launceston Examiner (Tas. : 1842 - 1899) 14 March 1879: 3. Web. 8 Dec 2018; http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47795924.
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